Explanatory Notes

Several different systems of numbering have been used in the Corinth Museum since 1896. The original system was to identify the type of object (CL Corinth Lamp, CP Corinth Pottery) and follow it by a continuous sequence of numbers. Objects from the Shear excavations of 1925-1931 were numbered separately by area, e.g. CH (Cheliotomylos) 43. Beginning in 1927, newly excavated pottery was numbered by the year in which it was found: C-27-1, while CP numbers continued to be used for new entries from old excavation material. Since 1976 the year on all inventoried material has been written as a four-digit number. After the publication of Corinth IV, ii, CL was written simply as L, and the system of annual numbering was applied to lamps beginning in 1968. Lots also were numbered continuously from the time this system of storing the uninventoried context material was instituted by Henry Robinson in 1959, and annually beginning in 1972. The practice of numbering closed deposits, however, is so recent that all the numbers are annual, e.g. Well 61-11, Grave 64-3.

Occasionally it has been necessary to include in the catalogue a vessel of which the examples from the Demeter Sanctuary were not worth inventorying, because complete examples from elsewhere at Corinth were already inventoried. Such pieces were numbered with the lot number and a continuous number (1960:1 or 73-99:1), in order to identify photographs and drawings, and returned to the lot for storage. Catalogue entries for such pieces are usually limited to place of finding and description of fabric.

In the catalogue three measurements are given for complete pieces, one or two as necessary for fragments. Moldmade lamps have height (H.), length (L.), and width (W.), measured according to the convention established by Broneer in Corinth IV, ii, p. 128. Like pottery, wheelmade lamps have diameter (D.) rather than width; if the diameter is not a perfect circle, the maximum and minimum are given (0.075/0.066) whether or not they are at right angles to each other. For pottery the height, diameter of the resting surface (D. base or D. foot) and diameter of the highest point of the profile (D. rim or D. lip) are given if possible. The letter "p." preceding a dimension signifies "preserved" and was measured with the piece correctly oriented. If less than half the circumference of a vessel was preserved, the diameter has been estimated (est.) and only one side of the profile was drawn. All measurements are in meters (m.).

In general, I have been conservative in description and attributions in the catalogue entries and have tried to confine my opinions and interpretations to the text.

Pottery can rarely be dated more closely than within a 30- to 50-year span. "Middle of the 1st century" indicates such a span, of which the midpoint is ca. a.d. 50, "late 2nd/early 3rd century" a similar span, of which the midpoint is ca. a.d. 200. Early Roman refers generally to the Augustan through Flavian periods, Late Roman to the second half of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and early 7th centuries. If the date of an item is supplied by the context in which it was found, the terminus post quern of the lot is given following the context description. If, on the other hand, a fairly specific date is supplied by comparanda, the date is given at the end of the entry. For lamps, which are frequently used by excavators as chronological indicators, I have supplied a date for each lamp at the end of the catalogue entry. Because most types of pottery were newly identified during the course of this study, the dates of many lots and types are provisional. The Lot List (pp. 131-143), which includes coins and context descriptions along with the Roman lamps and pottery, is intended to allow the reader to evaluate the strength of the evidence and to aid in making revisions. Dates are of the Christian era unless otherwise specified.

By the conclusion of this study it is clear not only that the Sanctuary was not occupied throughout the history of Roman Corinth but also that the corpus of types, although representative, is not complete. I have therefore preferred not to introduce yet another incomplete typology into the literature, employing instead typologies established elsewhere or, when no suitable typology was available, descriptive names. Type or form numbers may be found in the following publications:

Corinth IV, ii, "Classification," passim

H. Dragendorff, "Terra Sigillata," Bonnjbb 96/97, 1895, pis. I-III CIL XV, tab. ii

Bolsena, "Tables recapitulatives des formes," pp. 371-375

S. Loeschcke, "Keramische Funde in Haltern," Mitteilungen der Altertumskommission fur Westfalen 5, 1909 (pp. 101-322), pi. X = O-C, pi. I LRP, passim

Moevs, Cosa, unnumbered foldout table at end Samaria-Sebaste III, figs. 73, 77-82.

The colors of the fabric and of the glaze have been described using the Munsell Soil Color Charts, Baltimore 1971. I have continued to use the word "glaze" in preference to more technically correct terms such as "slip" or "Glanztonfilm", or terms such as "surface-coating" and "color-coated", which are widely used in reports of Roman pottery in English. These terms tend to suggest a technical difference which did not exist between the slips applied to different wares; the difference in adhesiveness and gloss is primarily a property of different clay sources, not of different technologies used by the ancient potters. "Lead-glaze" denotes a true vitrified glaze, while "engobe" is an underlying slip in a color (usually white) contrasting with the clay ground.

Descriptions normally proceed in the order in which a vessel was made, from bottom to top, followed by added parts and surface treatment. The terminology which I have employed is that generally in use in Corinth and found in a number of previous Corinth volumes with the following exceptions:

Base: the support of a vessel which was formed from a single piece of clay with the body, whether or not it has been trimmed to resemble a foot. A disk base has a flat, wide resting surface. A false ring foot is a slightly concave disk base decorated with a canted groove, a common Corinthian form as on pitchers. A base ring has been trimmed to resemble a foot. Bottom: the unarticulated lower surface of a vessel such as a stew pot. Foot: a support which has been added on to the body of the vessel. A ring foot is circular and may have moldings on the exterior face. A pedestal foot has a molded interior and exterior and is attached to the vessel by a stem which was formed as part of the foot. Resting surface: the part of the base, bottom, or foot which rests on the table. Lip: the highest point of the profile.

Rim: the upper termination of the vessel if it is differentiated from the wall or neck. Also, the outer, ridged edge of the upper surface of Early Roman lamps, surrounding the discus. Rough-cast: the decorative technique, employed on thin-walled wares, in which a mixture of slip and sand grains or clay pellets is painted on a vessel, or the vessel is slipped and then rolled in sand.

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