Mug

P 8948. P.H. 0.064; P.D. 0.105. Fragmentary; most of wall missing.

Fabric and shape as P 46. No trace of handle preserved.

P 48. Fusiform ungubntarium. PL 2.

P 9814. H. rest. 0.345; D. 0.131. Edge of foot broken away; restored.

Hard, buff clay with some mica.

Fusiform body with neatly turned ring foot; conical base.

The fusiform shape is characteristic of Hellenistic unguentaria, as A 64-65, B 6-7 and 44, C 76-77, D 77-78, E 137-138; F 48, however, has a plumper body than the Hellenistic specimens and is striking for its large size and ring foot—the Hellenistic unguentaria have flat bases and usually range in height between 0.075 and 0.20. An unguentarium similar to F 48 (H. 0.28; small ring foot; neck glazed as G 98) was found in a tomb at Ornavasso, Italy, in conjunction with an assis of Augustus, struck by M. Maecilius Tullus, ca. 13 B.C. (tomb 121 of the Persona cemetery; Ornavasso, pp. 266-267, pi. XXIII, 3). F 48 was found in the channel connecting the two cisterns N 19:1 and N 18:1; the piece is associated with the upper fill of N 19:1 (Group F) because of the fact that fragments of other vessels from the same channel were found to join fragments from the upper fill of the cistern proper.

F 49. Unguentarium. PL 2.

Hard, brittle, gray-black clay; warped in firing.

Ovoid body on small ring foot; tall neck with everted lip.

Note the absence here of the cylindrical stem above the foot such as characterizes F 48 and the Hellenistic fusiform unguentaria. Compare 6 96.

F 50. Bulbous unguentarium. Pl. 2.

Hard, reddish buff clay.

Bulbous body with flat base. For the complete shape see 6 98.

This form of toilet bottle characterizes the late 1st century before and the 1st century after Christ (cf. G 97-98, M 6-7, [M 8]; of three similar unguentaria from the Persona cemetery at Ornavasso, one was found in conjunction with a coin of Augustus, another in conjunction with a jug, the handle of which is marked with a stamp of the potter Magnus in planta pedis and which is therefore probably of the Tiberian period or later [see below, p. 26, G 37] —Ornavasso, pl. XXVI, 11, 12, 13, from tombs 69, 26 and 94, pp. 235-236, 211, 248-249). Bulbous unguentaria were occasionally glazed on the interior (as P 1956) and were usually glazed about the mouth, inside and out. Barer, large unguentaria of fabric similar to F 60 and with interior glaze, but on ring foot, occur in Augustan fillings (P 8480, 8481 and 8482, all from Deposit Q 13:1; see composite reconstructed profile on Pl. 73). During the latter part of the 1st Christian century blown glass toilet bottles (as M 56, M 106), which are so common a feature of Roman burials in the eastern Mediterranean as also in western Europe,14 seem to have driven the pottery vessels from the market; clay unguentaria do not occur in deposits of the 2nd century and later, though M 369 appears to represent a recurrence of the clay bottle in the 6th century.

u Morin- Jean, La verrerie en Gaule sous Vempire Romain, Paris, 1913, forms 22, 26, 39, pp. 73-79, 91; Hardin, Roman Glass from Karanis, Ann Arbor, 1936, pp. 265-274 (Class B of toilet bottles); Neuburger, Glass in Antiquity, London, 1949, p. 42, fig. 82.

Coarse Housbhold Wares F 51. Shallow bowl. PI. 65.

P 11864. H. 0.049; D. rest. 0.168. Fragmentary; restored.

Yellow-buff to pinkish buff, micaceous clay. Base left rough from wheel.

There is no record of the depth at which F 61 was found in the cistern filling (see p. 10).

F 52. Shallow bowl.

P 11863. H. 0.045; D. rest. 0.16. Fragmentary; restored.

Gray-buff to buff clay.

Shape as F 51, but the base is offset from the wall.

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