P 11893. P.H. 0.129; D. rest. 0.156. Fragmentary; restored. Original bottom surface of spout apparently broken in antiquity and trimmed off to a smooth edge.

Hard, brownish buff clay with grits; purplish black glaze applied in a wide, spiral band around the exterior.

The broad, round-bodied bowl terminates above in a flat-topped lip, set off by a deep groove on the exterior; below, the body narrows sharply into the tapering spout. Single, horizontal, flat handle just below the lip.

For a Hellenistic parallel, see E136; later specimens are to be seen in P 21752 (Augustan filling of Deposit R 10:1), M 9 (middle of 1st century after Christ) and M 119 (early 3rd century).

P11894. H. 0.232; D. 0.347; D. spout at base 0.105. Fragmentary; restored. Broken in antiquity and repaired with lead clamps, attachment holes for which are present in some of the fragments.

Hard, buff clay; thick fabric.

The broad, deep bowl terminates above in an incurving lip; the cylindrical spout is extremely wide and short and is separated from the bowl by a projecting collar.

It is possible that the spout was originally longer and at the time of the ancient repair was trimmed down to its present length of 0.035. It seems more likely, however, that the spout retains its original length and that the funnel was designed for use in filling some standard-size container into whose neck the spout would fit closely, with the collar resting on the container-lip. The funnel spout is too wide to fit into the necks of most Hellenistic storage amphorae, but it does fit readily in the necks of some amphorae of the 1st century after Christ, as [M 14].

P 11871. H. 0.443; D. 0.256. Parts of lip, handle and body restored.

Hard, reddish buff, micaceous clay, the surface much pitted.

Tapering, ovoid body on neatly turned, flaring ring foot; short neck with spreading lip, flat on top; single vertical handle, marked by a groove which occupies the full width of the outer surface.

F 65-66 represent the earliest stage in a long succession of micaceous jars, the subsequent stages of which can be seen in G 107, [3 46], J 47, L 50-51, and in a series from Group M: 45-46, 125-126, 240-242, 255-259, 275-282, 307, 335, 373. For detailed illustration of feet and necks, see Plate 41.

In the course of development of this type of jar, the pronounced shoulder of F 65 disappears and a plump, fusiform shape occurs ([J 46]); this in turn becomes steadily more slender in the succeeding centuries. The neatly turned foot of F 65 becomes narrower in [J 46] and then turns into the characteristic tubular foot seen in M 255; subsequently, in the specimens of the end of the 4th century and later, the foot, though remaining hollow, tapers toward the bottom and is sometimes almost closed at the tip.

Until the late 4th century the jars have but one handle, always marked by splayed attachments and a single, broad, vertical groove; with the change from tubular to pointed foot, a second splayed handle is added. These jars are generally lined with mastic resin; they frequently bear a dipinto or graffito below the handle.15 They were presumably used as shipping containers for wine; the Agora specimens often have a filling hole broken in the shoulder, testifying to the re-use of the jars for drawing water. Jars of the typically brown or black micaceous and laminated fabric, which is found first in [J 46], occur over a wide area in the eastern Mediterranean; I have noted specimens at Kourion on Cyprus (University of Pennsylvania excavations), from Nubia (in Cairo: W. B. Emery, The Royal Tombs of Ballana and Qustul, Cairo, 1938, type 13a, p. 390, pi. Ill; also an imitation of this shape in bronze, likewise from Nubia, ibid., cat. no. 781, p. 355, p. 125, pi. 93B) and from Tarsus (Tarsus, I, no. 797, figs. 162, 205). A jar found at Haltern, the site of a trans-Rhenish fort on the Lippe river (occupied 11 B.C.-A.D. 16), appears to belong to this series and to occupy a typological position between our F 66 and [J 46] (Haltern, I, pp. 292-293, type 90, fig. 47). An apparently similar jar is reported in Spain (presumably from Baetica: G. E. Bonsor, An Archaeological Sketch-book of the Roman Necropolis at Carmona, New York, 1931, no. 108, p. 138, pi. LXXXI).

P 11870. H. 0.477; D. 0.261. Fragmentary; restored.

Fine, hard, buff to pinkish buff clay with some mica; self-slip.

Shape as F 65, but the body does not taper quite so much above the foot, and the point of maximum diameter lies lower on the body.

Fine, hard, light buff clay; self-slip.

Plump body on low, false ring foot; tapering neck with thickened lip, flat on top; vertical, flat handle.

P 20514. P.H. 0.17; D. neck est. 0.105. Fragment of shoulder, neck and handle.

Pinkish buff clay with grits; micaceous, buff slip.

From the sloping shoulder of a one-handled (?) vessel; vertical, twist handle.

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