Clay and glaze as F 3; double-dipping streak.
Shape as F 12, but with more pronounced flare to the wall.
P 11848. P.H. 0.009; D. of resting surface est. 0.12. Fragmentary; rim missing.
Soft, micaceous, cinnamon-red clay; dull, reddish glaze. The surface of the clay has flaked extensively.
At the center of the floor, a potter's stamp: 8co|po[v].10
This fragment is an example of the finer and earlier class of Samian ware which I have termed Samian B. Samian pottery seems to have been manufactured in imitation of and in competition with Arretine ware, the importation of which into the eastern Mediterranean certainly does not antedate 30 B.C. There is no evidence for dating Samian ware prior to the end of the 1st century B.C.; if not an intrusion into the household dump which constitutes the upper filling of Deposit N 19:1, F16 must be one of the earliest products of the Samian kilns. The absence of other Samian fragments and the total absence of Arretine ware from this Deposit seem sufficient evidence for placing the lower date of the Deposit no later than the turn of the era.
• A separate study of Samian ware will appear in the second volume of this work. For previous studies and bibliography, see Tarsus, I, pp. 186-187. The finer quality of Samian ware, here identified as Samian B, is characterized by hard, brownish red or cinnamon-red, micaceous clay and a firm, orange-red glaze; the shapes which occur in this fabric are generally sharply articulated and seem to imitate those of Arretine ware; the potters' stamps, which occur invariably at the center of the floor, consist of the letters of the potter's name or of a convivial greeting. Samian A ware, likewise micaceous, is less hard and of lighter color both in fabric and in glaze; the shapes are generally simpler than those of Samian B and the potters' stamps consist of devices.
10 A separate study of potters' stamps on early Roman pottery will appear in the second volume of this work. For previous studies and bibliography, see Tarsus, I, pp. 208-209, 282-296.
West Slope Ware11
P 11840. H. 0.155; D. rest. 0.287. Fragmentary; restored.
Pinkish buff clay; metallic, red glaze, mottled black in part.
A deep bowl with flaring wall. Decoration in added white and buff paints: inside the foot, a star of four points; on the wall, curving floral sprays and ribbons, above and below which a band of large dots alternating with pairs of short vertical strokes. Each band of dots and vertical strokes is outlined above and below by a wheel-run groove, under the glaze, which was probably intended as a guide to the workman who added the painted ornament. The stalks of the floral sprays are indicated by incision through the glaze.
P 9069. H. 0.195; D. at lip 0.32. Almost complete; restored.
Reddish buff clay; dull, reddish glaze, mottled black in part.
Similar to F 16. Decoration in white and buff paint as on F 16, except that the star inside the foot has eight points, the floral sprays are vertical and the ribbons are missing. No use of incision.
F 1&-17 are examples of the latest stage of the Attic Hellenistic fabric known as West Slope ware. Late 2nd century B.C. specimens of a shape parallel to F16—17 are more shallow and make more extensive use of incision in the exterior decoration.12
Other Fine Early Roman Fabrics13
P 11855. H. 0.089; D. at lip 0.099. Fragmentary; restored.
Fine, hard, reddish clay with some mica, fired brownish gray on upper part of exterior (probably as a result of stacking in the kiln); thin fabric.
Cup without handles. The wall, cylindrical at top, narrows from the mid-point toward a small, flat base. Single, horizontal groove at mid-point of wall.
11 See Thompson, H.P., pp. 438-447, for a discussion of Hellenistic West Slope ware.
12 See E 62-68. A fragmentary bowl from Group F (P 11841) is so close a parallel to E 62-68 that it may be considered a pre-Sullan element in the upper filling of the cistern. This bowl, like those from group E, has a groove on the resting surface of the foot.
13 A separate study of these early Roman wares will appear in the second volume of this work. For bibliography, see Tarsus, I, pp. 188-191; to which add A.J.A., L, 1946, pp. 480-482, nos. 75-82, pis. XLII, XLIX. That some of the barbotine ware was introduced in the Hellenistic period, and even as early as 150 B.C., is indicated by specimens from Corinth (Hesperia, XVI, 1947, p. 240, pl. LX, 16) and by a fragment in Hellenistic Group D (D 79).
P19. Brittle ware beaker. PL 1.
P 11856. H. 0.098; D. 0.089. Almost complete; restored.
Fine, hard, reddish clay; thin fabric.
Shape as F 18, but of more slender proportions.
P 8936. H. rest. 0.103; D. at lip rest. 0.07. Fragmentary, base does not join; restored.
Fine, hard, reddish brown clay with some mica, fired gray-black on upper part of exterior (as F 18); thin fabric.
Cup without handles. The wall rises obliquely from a very low ring foot; an offset rim curves inward toward the top and terminates in a small, everted lip. A horizontal groove at the base of the rim and another at the base of the wall; horizontal bands of rouletted decoration around the body.
F 21. Brittle ware beaker.
P 8934. P.H. 0.082; D. at base of rim est. 0.082. Fragmentary; rim missing.
Fabric, shape and decoration as F 20.
P 8935. P.H. 0.078; D. at top of wall est. 0.10. Profile of upper half preserved. Hard, reddish clay; thin fabric. Cup without handles, as F 20-21, but the offset rim is vertical. Closely spaced, horizontal bands of rouletting on the body.
F 23. Thorn ware beaker fragments. PL 1.
P 8937. P.H. (est. from the two larger fragments) 0.068. Three small, non-joining fragments of rim and upper wall; lip missing.
Fine, hard, reddish brown, micaceous clay, fired gray-black on exterior; thin fabric.
Presumably from a beaker resembling in shape F 20-22. Both rim and wall decorated with wedge-shaped projections which have given to this fabric the name "thorn ware"; cf. 6 2.
F 24. Barbotine beaker fragments. Pl. 1.
P 11857. Two small, non-joining fragments of wall; max. dim. 0.041.
Fine, hard, reddish buff clay, fired gray on upper part of exterior (as F 18); thin fabric.
Presumably a beaker as P 9815 (PL 39), which comes from Deposit M 18:1 (construction filling). F 24 is decorated with small barbotine dots on the wall (reconstructed pattern, PL 1).
P 8915. H. rest. 0.089; D. at lip rest. 0.078. Fragmentary, base missing; restored.
Hard, gray clay; gray-black glaze with slight metallic luster (partial).
A jug, probably with flat base; a very narrow shoulder is set off from the rounded body at an angle; small, everted lip. On the body, barbotine dots in five horizontal bands. No trace of handle.
F 26. Gray ware cup, two handles. PL 63.
P 11836. H. 0.067; D. 0.129. Fragmentary; restored.
Hard, brittle, gray clay; dull, gray-black glaze (partial).
Varieties of this shape occur in the 1st century after Christ, the latest examples adorned with rouletting around the body at the point of maximum diameter: P 16717 (Deposit N 21:1) and P 17015, Plate 39; compare also H10. A vessel of similar shape from tomb 94 of the Persona cemetery at Ornavasso was found together with a jug bearing on its handle a plantaform stamp which should be dated no earlier than the Tiberian period (see below, p. 26, G 37; Ornavasso, pp. 248-249, pl. XXII, 13).
P 11838. H. 0.037; D. rest. 0.19. Fragmentary, center of floor missing; restored.
Gray clay; gray-black glaze.
This shape does occur before 86 B.C.: compare E 154 and two larger plates of buff clay with metallic black glaze which are from the upper fill of this cistern but are certainly contemporary with the lower, pre-Sullan material (P 11814-11815).
Miscellaneous Glazed and Non-glazed Wares
P 11832. H. 0.09; D. 0.247. Much of wall and rim restored.
Pinkish buff clay; lustrous glaze, fired red to black.
The low rim, tilting inward, served as a flange to hold a lid, now missing. No trace of handles.
The same shape occurs in P 21736, a bowl from Deposit R 10:1.
P 11846. H. 0.076; D. at lip 0.182. One handle and part of wall restored.
Hard, fine, brittle, dark buff clay; dull, black glaze (partial), fired reddish brown in part on exterior.
Two horizontal handles, bent upward at the outer extremity of the loop. At center of floor, three large, irregular, stamped palmettes (as F 30-31).
In shape and fabric F 29-30 are very similar to the bowls D 17-18 of the 2nd century B.C. and to another of the 1st century after Christ, G 51. D 17-18, however, are deeper than the Roman examples and lack the stamped decoration of F 29-31. Two fragments of similar bowls from early Roman contexts have on
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