Frederick Litchfield

AUTHOR OK "POTTERY AND PORCELAIN," "ILLUSTRATED H IS I'ORY OK FURNITURE," ETC. ETC.

LONDON REEVES AND TURNER 83 CHARING CROSS ROAD, W.C. X0O

First Edition, 1S74 Second Edition, 1889

Reprinted y 1892 A New Edit¡oí¡i 1S9S Reprinted) 1901

Printed ly BalLamtVnr, UansoN 6* Co. At the liullumyiie I'Icbd r

EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE NEW EDITION

This New Edition of Chaffers' Hand-book is now published in a more complete form than the previous issues,, and should be of greater service to the collcctor, for, in addition to some 500 marks which have been contributed by the Editor, there are a great many which the late Mr. Chaffers had inserted in his Seventh Edition of the large book, but which had not been included in his previous edition of the Hand-book. The present edition is, therefore, a complete excerpt or resume as regards the marks of the original work, entitled "Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain," by W. Chaffers, the last or eighth edition of which was revised by the present editor and published in 1S97.

No material change has been made in the arrangement of the work, which follows that of the larger book referred to above. The size is handy for the collector's pocket; and to maintain this desirable end, some of the larger marks have been, rcduced iru. scale and a lighter paper used, so as not to materially increase the bulk.

The following very slight historical outline sketch has been added by the Editor, which it is hoped will be of service to the collector.

The subject of the references in the following pages may be roughly divided into two classes -Pottery and v

Porcelain. Pottery includes stoneware and enamelled or glazed earthenware; porcelain, that more vitreous and transparent composition of china clay and petuntse or ground flint, which is more akin to glass.

For the purposes of this Hand hook it is unnecessary to explain in further detail the differences in composition and texture of the two classes of Ceramics, but speaking generally, pottery breaks with a rough surface of its fractured parts, as would an ordinary piece of terra cotta, while porcelain breaks with smooth surfaces, similar to glass.

To the Pottery class belong all those fabriqucs of enamelled earthenware called Majolica, Faykncic, or Dei-ft, these being the Italian, French, and Dutch subdivisions respectively, although the terms have become intermixed, and casually applied to all classes of faience.

The most famous of the Italian maiolica, first made in the later part of the fifteenth century, under the personal patronage and encouragement of the dukes or petty sovereigns of the little states and duchies into which Italy was then divided, are those of Urbino, Gubbin, Castel Durante, Pesaro, Faenza, and Caflagiolo, with many others, the marks of which occupy the first fifty pages of the Hand-book. Of the individual artists who decorated the ware, none is so celebrated as Maestro Giorgio Andreoli, more commonly known as Maestro Giorgio, who worked at Gubbio. Several of the characteristic and diversified signatures of this famous artist are given for the collector's reference, but as genuine specimens of this master have been so thoroughly searched for, and absorbed into museums and well-known private collections, the unskilled collector should be very sceptical in accept-

PRKFACK.

vii ing any majolica attributed to Giorgio without the most convincing proofs of its authenticity.

The numerous Fayences of Franco and Holland, and to a much smaller extent those of other countries, will be found represented by their ftibrique marks, and by the signatures or initials and monograms of the potters and artists who worked in their respective ateliers; and perhaps a word of caution may here be given as to the numerous imitations of the best known of such fayences, such as those of Rouen, Moustiers, Marseilles, and Nevers, also those of Delft, which are made in large quantities in Paris, and sold in England and on the Continent to unwary collectors.

The stoneware of Germany, commonly called "Gris de Flandres," also much of the old Fulhani ware of England, and the exceedingly scarce and valuable "Saint Porchairc" fayence of France, formerly known as Henri Deux ware, also the decorative fayence of Persia and Rhodes, of Spain, called Hispano-Moresco, have scarcely any distinguishing marks, but such as there are will be found to follow those of Italy» France, and Holland.

The marks of the pottery of Staffordshire which arc given, were placed by Mr. Chaffers in the English section at the end of the book, preceding the English Porcelain marks, and I have not thought it prudent to transfer them, although they rightly belong to the first part of the book.

Porcelain was made in China at a very early date, we do not know how early, but some centuries before its introduction into Europe; and the curious marks and hieroglyphics used by Oriental potters are given at con-

siderable length, followed by those of Japan in the second section of the Hand-book. These singular characters, which appear to the casual observer as very similar to each other, have generally some meaning which relates to the article itself or to the purpose for which it was intended. Sometimes a proverb or legend, such as <4I)eep like a treasury of gems," or " For the public use in the General's Hall," is used as a mark; while, more generally, the Oriental characters refer to the elate or place of manufacture, such as "Made in the King-to period of the great Sung dynasty."

It is, however, only right to state, in referring to marks on Chinese pottery and porcelain, that as the Chinese potters themselves have repeated the earlier marks and dates upon specimens of much later periods than such marks signify, the collector must not place reliance upon the marks, except when they agree with the apparent date of the specimen, as judged upon its merits with regard to its form and decoration. . |

The introduction, or rather the mention of the manu- ! facture of porcelain in Europe, dates from the first few years of the eighteenth century, and is generally attributed to a chemist named Bottger, at Meissen in Saxony. Some of the early marks impressed in the red-brown paste which is identified with his name will be found, and also the numerous marks of the different periods of the most celebrated porcelain factory of Saxony, generally called Dresden.

From Meissen the secret of porcelain-making spread to Vienna, to other parts of Germany, and subsequently to France and England, gradually superseding. the glazed |

earthenware or faience upon which so much artistic care had been lavished.

The famous Sevres factory has a history which can be divided into chapters representing different classes of manufacture, and the marks and monograms of the numerous artists who decorated this most delicate and valuable porcelain are given at considerable length, and will enable the collector to trace to the date of its manufacture and the name of the decorator or gilder many a specimen in his cabinet.

The group of English fabriques, commencing with the famous Bow works, then with Chelsea and Derby, afterwards amalgamated under Mr. Duesbury into the Chelsea-Derby factory, the famous Worcester factory started by Dr. Wall, the Bristol and Plymouth works, also the much sought after Welsh factories of Nantgarw and Swansea, with others of less importance, all followed the lead of the Meissen porcelain manufactory. The fabriquc marks and many of the potters' marks will be found under their respective headings.

The marks and monograms of the ceramic ftibriqites of the Continent and of England form a fascinating object of collection, and the study of the origin or raiso?i d'ttre of these various marks is in itself a most interesting and instructive hobby, carrying the collector into glimpses of international and family histories which will well repay his time and attention.

INDEX

MANUFACTORIES, MANUFACTURERS AND ARTISTS, with their marks and monograms, etc.

165, 168, 178, 186

  1. mes, potter 97
  2. B 64, 87, 88, 95, 151, 196,

197, 230

Abbey (Richard), potter 216

ABRUZZI (Castelli), pottery 39-41

Absolon, potter 228

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