The onsite distribution of the mycenaean pottery

The spatial distribution of Mycenaean pottery at Enkomi can be investigated with the help of the city-quarters created by the rectangular street-layout (Fig. 10.1), even though many finds predate the actual town plan. Each of the excavated city quarters has yielded the amounts indicated in Table 10.1.31 The areas, of course, vary highly in size. More importantly, they differ in the extent to which they have been excavated and published. The apparent concentration of Mycenaean finds in Q4W, for example, is easily explained by the fact that this area has been excavated and fully published by the Cypriot team. The same may be said for Q1W, which is the other area excavated by the Cypriots and rates second in the amount of published Mycenaean material. The substantial difference between these two areas in the number of Mycenaean finds is not due to a difference in size, which is approximately the same, but to the larger number of tombs in Q4W. The number of Mycenaean finds from settlement contexts does not show significant differences.32

The importance of the tombs for the spatial distribution of Mycenaean pottery is also clear from the other areas which have produced relatively large quantities of Mycenaean pottery. Most of the Mycenaean finds in Q5E, Q5W and Q7W can be attributed to tombs. There appears to be a concentration of tombs in the north-west and in the west of the site (Fig. 10.1). Tomb concentrations may also be seen in Q8E/Q9E and along the eastern scarp. The reason for the lower frequency or even absence of tombs in other areas is unclear,33 but it is possible that not every part of the settlement area served as a burial ground. Considering the number of Mycenaean tomb finds (see below), any spatial variation in the frequency of Mycenaean pottery at Enkomi may be related to the spatial distribution of tombs.

The figures in Table 10.1, therefore, mainly reflect the extent of publication and the distribution of tombs. However, what may also be deduced from this table is that Mycenaean pottery was not restricted to one or a few parts of the settlement area. Within the urban zone excavated by the French and Cypriots (Fig. 10.1), only from Q1E, Q6E and Q7E has Mycenaean pottery not been reported. Q1E was part of Dikaios' area III, but was excavated down to LC IIIA levels only.34 Mycenaean pottery has not been reported from the structures of this level, among which were the building blocking the northern gate and the large 'tower' just outside it. Only very small parts from Q6E and Q7E were excavated, and these have not been published. From all other excavated city precincts and from a number of outlying areas has Mycenaean pottery been reported. This suggests that such vessels were widely available in the city. It is clear from Table 10.1 that Mycenaean figurines were not frequent at Enkomi. However, the six examples found came from five different parts of the settlement area, which suggests that the use of these objects was not restricted.

The predominance of Mycenaean tomb finds also becomes apparent from Table 10.2, which shows the contextual distribution of the Mycenaean finds at Enkomi. The majority of the Mycenaean vessels

31 The locations of many of these tombs have been deduced through superposition of the British and Swedish field plans upon the later plans. In some cases, it was impossible to identify the exact town quarter in which a tomb must have been situated, but its location was narrowed down to a choice of two adjacent parts, for example Q1E/Q2E.

32 Q4W and Q1W produced 209 and 192 Mycenaean finds respectively from settlement levels.

33 Myres (1945, 70) was unable to locate tombs in 'Mukhtar's field', which was situated somewhere in the south.

34 Dikaios 1969, 125-129. Some of the pottery in the catalogue without precise find context but designated as from Q1W may actually derive from Q1E, since Dikaios included both these quarters in his area III.

site area

pots and sherds

figurines

Total

unknown

113

1

114

Q1W

195

195

Q1W-west

3

3

Q1E

Q1E/Q2E

11

11

Q2W

13

13

Q2W/Q2E

1

1

Q3W

105

105

Q3E

1

1

Q3W/Q4W

19

19

Q4W

321

2

323

Q4E

62

62

Q4E/Q5E

4

4

Q5W

192

192

Q5E

210

210

Q6W

59

59

Q6E

Q7W

112

112

Q7E

Q8W

11

11

Q8E

0

1

1

Q9E

10

1

11

Q9E/Q10E

5

5

Q9W

7

7

Q11E

2

2

eastern scarp

11

11

Total

1466

6

Table 10.1

was found in funerary contexts and these are widely distributed. Only in the two city quarters which have been fully published do settlement finds outnumber those with a funerary context.35 This indicates that the impression that Mycenaean pottery at Enkomi was mainly used for funerary purposes is not correct. Rather, the methodology of excavation and publication has created a strong bias in favour of funerary contexts. The evidence from Q1W and Q4W, as well as the scatter of Mycenaean finds from settlement contexts in other areas, suggest that everywhere in the city this material was also used for other than funerary purposes.

Mycenaean pottery has not been reported from religious contexts, which is due to the absence of identifiable religious architecture prior to the LC IIIB period. From the defensive tower in Q1E, which may have served religious functions, no Mycenaean pottery has been reported.36 Mycenaean finds from domestic contexts may, of course, have been included in religious ceremonies practised on the household level.

As in preceding chapters, a 'domestic' context has been assigned when Mycenaean objects were found in buildings. A 'settlement' context has been assigned in those cases where finds occurred in pits, or in other structures, which could not definitively be assigned to specific buildings.

Catling (1975) assigns a religious function to this building, while Fortin (1984, 173-176) thinks it served

site area

unknown

funerary

domestic

settlement

unknown

59

45

9

Q1W

3

109

83

Q1W-west

3

Q1E

Q1E/Q2E

11

Q2W

13

Q2E

Q2W/Q2E

1

Q3E

1

Q3W

105

Q3W/Q4W

19

Q4E

61

1

Q4W

114

160

49

Q4E/Q5E

4

Q5E

198

12

Q5W

183

2

7

Q6W

59

1

Q7W

112

Q7E

Q8W

11

Q8E

1

Q9E

11

Q9E/Q10E

5

Q9W

7

Q11E

2

eastern scarp

11

Total

59

973

273

Table 10.2

The spatial distribution of the Late Helladic and Late Minoan pottery at Enkomi according to chronological ceramic styles is presented in Table 10.3.37 From these figures it is apparent that Aegean vessels from the first half of the Late Bronze Age (LH I-LH IIIA1) are scarce at Enkomi in comparison with the large quantities of later material. However, the number of thirty-eight pots assigned to LH I-LH IIIA1 is quite substantial in comparison with other Cypriot sites.38 Moreover, at Enkomi some very early Mycenaean pots have been found, among which are two semi-globular cups (cat. nos. 930, 931) dated to LH I, and a rounded alabastron (cat. no. 932) of similar date. A handleless cup (cat. no. 205) appears to date to LH IIA. The distribution of these very early vessels is limited to a sin-

religious, as well as defensive purposes. The group assigned to 'IIIA2' also includes LH IIIA1-LH IIIA2 vessels. The class of pottery labeled LH/LM III cannot be assigned to a specific ceramic style and may be considered undatable. Figurines are not included in this table.

Mycenaean finds dating to LH I-LH IIIA1 and their

Minoan counterparts have been reported from ten other sites at Cyprus. Only at Toumba tou Skourou have more than ten Aegean pots from the first part of the Late Bronze Age been found, most with a Cretan origin, see Vermeule 1980; Vermeule & Wolsky 1990, 381-384.

site area

I-IIA

IIB-IIIA1

IIIA2

IIIA2-IIIB

IIIB

IIIB-IIIC

LH/LM III

undatable

total

unknown

5

22

25

34

5

18

4

113

Q1W

3

3

62

11

112

4

195

Q1W-west

3

3

Q1E/Q2E

1

5

5

11

Q2E

Q2W

3

4

6

13

Q3E

1

1

Q3W

34

38

29

4

105

Q3W/Q4W

3

4

5

7

19

Q4E

3

12

20

23

2

2

62

Q4E/Q5E

1

1

1

1

4

Q4W

8

90

51

165

3

4

321

Q5E

5

30

34

42

10

76

3

210

Q5W

3

15

49

110

15

192

Q6W

3

14

25

15

2

59

Q7E

Q7W

20

63

23

1

5

112

Q8E

Q8W

2

5

4

11

Q9E

3

7

10

Q9E/Q10E

5

5

Q9W

2

3

2

7

Q11E

1

1

2

eastern scarp

1

4

4

1

1

11

Total

34

323

357

570

27

132

9

Table 10.3

gle building in Q1W and British Tomb 40 on the eastern scarp. This could indicate that these vessels were not widely used among the inhabitants of the city, but the number of vessels is too low to draw such a conclusion on the basis of the distribution alone.

The Mycenaean finds dating to LH IIB-LH IIIA1 from the first part of the Late Bronze Age have been found in many different parts of the Enkomi settlement area, which suggests that this material was not spatially restricted but used by inhabitants in different parts of the city. Mycenaean vessels in LH IIIA2 and LH IIIB styles was also widely distributed in the urban space of Enkomi.

Of course, Mycenaean chronological styles must be correlated to the stratigraphy at Enkomi. It is difficult to include the funerary finds in such a correlation, since many of the Enkomi tombs have been in use during several stratigraphical periods. Table 10.4 therefore relates the ceramic styles of the Mycenaean settlement finds at Enkomi to the stratigraphy of the site.39 A LH I rounded alabastron (cat. no. 932) and one dated to LH IIIA1 (cat. no. 933), as well as two LH I semi-globular cups (cat. nos. 930-931), were found in Level I (LC IA) of the fortress in Q1W This shows that Mycenaean vessels stylistically belonging to the first part of the Late Bronze Age did actually arrive at Enkomi during the same period. Three stemmed cups assigned to LH IIB-LH IIIA1 (cat. nos. 970, 971) and LH IIIA1 (cat. no. 972) were discovered in a building dating to LC IIC in Q4W Two of these (cat.

Figurines have not been taken into account.

stratum I-IIA IIB-IIIA1 LHIIIA2

unstratified 5

LCI 3 1

LCI IA-LCIIB 42

LCII 4

LCIIC 3 29

LCIIC-LCIIIA 2

LCIIIA 1 16

LCIIIA-LCIIIB

LCIIIB 5

LCIIIB-LCIIIC

LCIIIC

LCIII 1 2

LCIII-EIAI

Total 3 6 105

LHIIIA2-LHIIIB LHIIIB LHIIIB-LHIIIC undatable total

113 16

7 86 110

2 29 36

11 77

43 250 11 13 428

Table 10.4

nos. 971, 972) are fragments found in levels between floors and these may be the result of stratigraph-ical disturbance. However, a fairly large fragment of the stemmed cup with cat. no. 970 was discovered in the LC IIC destruction level and it is possible that the cup was still in use during that period. A fragment of a LH IIIA1 shallow cup (cat. no. 1086) was found in a level dated to the end of LC IIIA. A similar LH IIIA1 shallow cup (cat. no. 1341) was found in the fourth burial period of Cy. T. 10.40 These examples suggest that Mycenaean pottery may have been used for long periods of time.

The largest group of Mycenaean settlement finds in LH IIIA2 style was found in level IIA (LC IIA-LC IIB), which is in accordance with the relative chronology established for this ceramic style.41 Quite a number of LH IIIA2 finds, however, have come to light in LC IIC levels. For most of these finds their stratigraphical position may have resulted from levelling operations or other disturbances. However, a LH IIIA2 kylix (cat. no. 1024) on the LC IIC floor of room 31 in Q1W is another possible example of a Mycenaean vessel which appears to have been in use long after its manufacture. The number of LH IIIB finds from levels dated after LC IIC suggest that the same may have been the case for vessels in this ceramic style.42

The contexts in which the different Mycenaean ceramic styles were discovered are indicated in Table 10.5. From this table it is apparent that the predominance of funerary contexts is valid for all Mycenaean ceramic styles from LH IIB onwards. Three of the four earliest Mycenaean vessels, however, have been found in a domestic context.

The spatial distribution of the Mycenaean functional vessel types is presented in Table 10.6. Dinner vessels clearly are more frequent at Enkomi than storage vessels.43 Both functional classes of pottery

40 The cup may have belonged to previous burials, the earliest of which has been dated to LC I, see Dikaios 1969, 393.

41 Dikaios (1969, 481-484) dates the end of level IIB

around 1300 BC, while Karageorghis (1982a, 9) pro poses a date of ca.1325 BC for the end of LC IIB. Both dates correlate well with the proposed end for the LH IIIA2 style of around 1320/1300 BC, see Wiener 1998.

42 A large fragment with complete foot of a LH IIIB bowl (cat. no. 1307) was found on floor IV (LC IIIB) of the 'Sanctuary of the Horned god', see Dikaios 1969, 320, Plate 99: no. 4.

43 The class of dinner vessels includes jugs of various date unknown funerary domestic settlement

I-IIA

IIB-IIIA1

IIIA2

IIIA2-IIIB

IIIB

IIIB-IIIC undatable

8 23

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