The onsite distribution of mycenaean pottery

The 616 entries in Catalogue II consist of 554 ceramic vessels or sherds thereof and 62 (fragments of) figurines. The number of Mycenean finds published from each of the excavated areas, including Minet el-Beida, are indicated in Table 5.1. As is evident from Fig. 5.1, the various areas of Ras Shamra differ in size and in nature. Minet el-Beida, of course, is a site of its own. Some excavated areas of Ras Shamra are large trenches comprising habitation areas of substantial size in which several

28 The recent catalogue by Hirschfeld (2000b) of Mycenaean pottery at the Louvre includes 421 pieces which had remained unpublished.

29 Schaeffer 1949, 131-301; Courtois & Courtois 1978, 192-370.

30 An example in case is the pottery from tomb VI in

Minet el-Beida. From the notebooks it is known that this tomb contained 282 Late Helladic vessels and thir-

ty-five Mycenaean figurines; see Courtois 1979a, 1283. However, only thirty-eight vessels and four figurines occur in the first corpus céramique.

32 Monchambert 1983, 26

33 Calvet & Geyer 1987; Mallet 1987; Yon 1987; Yon, Lombard & Renisio 1987, 11-128.

site area

pots and sherds

figurines

Total

Minet el-Beida

145

23

168

RS Acr.

25

3

28

RS PR

5

1

6

RS QR

62

2

64

RS NO

4

4

RS VB

38

2

40

RS SA

49

9

58

RS VS

78

2

80

RS CV

61

15

76

RS Ch.C

9

9

RS TTE

10

10

RS SC

8

8

RS SW

7

7

RS PS

9

3

12

RS NNO

2

2

RS PR/PS

2

2

RS unknown

35

2

37

MeB or RS

5

5

Total

554

62

Table 5.1

houses, streets, squares, etc. have been revealed.34 Two other trenches are much smaller,35 while two areas concern single, albeit large, buildings36 and one 'area' (RS SW) is a single tomb. Finally, one 'area' has been included because the finds could not be ascribed to one of the other excavation trenches.37

In considering the figures in Table 5.1, one should always keep in mind that the extent to which the campaigns devoted to the different areas have been published varies, as does the quality of the excavations themselves. Moreover, these figures represent published finds from all archaeological strata. Objects from the surface layer, which came into being during the decay of the site and has been subject to extensive erosion, especially in the streets,38 may actually derive from other parts of the site than their find spot seems to indicate. Similarly, finds from levelling strata are not in their original spot of deposition either.

Nevertheless, it is clear that Mycenaean pottery has been found in all excavated parts of Ras Shamra and in the harbour town of the ancient city. This seems not to be completely true for Mycenaean figurines, which are absent in certain areas. However, the areas without figurines are mainly smaller trenches (RS TTE, RS SC and RS SW), a single building (RS NNO) and the ambiguous find spot of RS PR/PS. The only larger trenches without figurines are the Quartier Nord Ouest and the Chantier C. In the case of the latter, which has yielded the comparatively small number of nine Mycenaean sherds, it should be noted that it was here that treasure hunters were active before

34 RS Acr., RS PR, RS QR, RS NO, RS VB, RS SA, RS VS, RS CV, RS Ch. C can all be considered as such.

35 RS TTE and RS SC.

36 The residence of RS NNO and the large mansion of

37 This is the case for the finds made in the square between the Palais Royal and the Palais Sud (RS PR/PS)

38 Callot 1994, 186.

site area

unknown

funerary

domestic

ritual

settlement

Minet el-Beida

46

95

11

4

12

RS Acr.

8

18

2

RS PR

3

2

1

RS QR

43

10

10

1

RS NO

2

2

RS VB

5

33

2

RS SA

41

5

12

RS VS

46

28

5

1

RS CV

13

0

26

33

4

RS Ch. C

3

6

RS TTE

8

2

RS SC

4

0

4

RS SW

7

RS PS

8

4

RS NNO

2

RS PR/PS

2

RS unknown

34

1

2

RS or MeB

5

Total

271

207

77

39

Table 5.2

1914.39 The absence of Mycenaean figurines in RS NO appears to be related to the generally small number of published Aegean finds for this vast area. Most of the buildings in the north-western quarter were related to the royal palace to the south.40 From the palace itself, likewise, a remarkably small amount of Mycenaean pottery is represented in the catalogue. This, however, is misleading: the recent investigation of the Mycenaean pottery from Ugarit at the Louvre museum, has revealed that 118 Mycenaean vases can be attributed to depositional contexts within the royal palace.41 This high figure should be related to the large size of the palace; Mycenaean pottery appears to have been distributed fairly regularly in the many rooms and courtyards.42 This indicates that there was not a concentration of this type of pottery in the palace.

The presence of Mycenaean pottery in all excavated areas of Ras Shamra and at Minet el-Beida indicates that this class of material was in use in the whole city of Ugarit and not confined to people living in specific areas. A widespread distribution of Mycenaean pottery is also suggested by the recent excavations in the Centre Ville (Fig. 5.6 below).43 Mycenaean finds in Maisons A, B and C in this part of town were made in many rooms and courtyards, generally in single pieces and associated with local domestic objects.

39 Schaeffer 1936b, 113. The fact that Schaeffer in this report refers specifically to "céramique mycénienne de très bonne qualité" (p. 109) may indicate that more was found than that actually published in the first corpus céramique.

40 Courtois 1979a, 1209; Callot (1986, 748-754) states that in the thirteenth century the western part of the

Quartier Nord-Ouest was part of the royal zone in the city, which, in an urbanistic sense, was separated from other areas. Before ca. 1370-1360 BC this area was the site of the first palace, the Palais Nord.

41 Hirschfeld 2000a, 68.

43 Yon, Lombard & Renisio 1987, 22-23, 40, 46, 53-55, 79, 85-89, 98-99, 103-104.

site area

II-IIIA1

IIIA2

IIIA2-IIIB

IIIB

undatable

Minet el-Beida

3

27

24

89

2

RS Acr.

7

4

14

RS PR

1

2

1

1

RS QR

1

13

7

41

RS NO

4

0

RS VB

19

1

18

RS SA

5

7

37

RS VS

3

12

10

53

RS CV

1

7

35

18

RS Ch. C

1

4

4

RS TTE

4

1

5

RS SC

6

2

RS SW

1

1

5

RS PS

2

7

RS NNO

2

RS PR/PS

1

1

RS unknown

1

3

10

21

RS or MeB

2

3

Total

8

98

81

344

Table 5.3

The distribution of Mycenaean pottery can also be viewed from the perspective of the contexts in which it occurs (Table 5.2). From a large proportion of the Mycenaean finds the context can not be reconstructed.44 This is probably partly caused by the number of finds made in the surface layer or levelling strata, while the methods of excavation, registration and publication may be to blame as well.

Table 5.2 shows that Mycenaean pottery at Minet el-Beida and Ras Shamra occurs in different kind of contexts. Mycenaean pottery has been found in ritual contexts in Minet el-Beida, on the acropolis, and in the Centre Ville.45 No conclusions can be based, however, on the absence of Mycenaean finds in ritual contexts in other areas. Ritual practices in Ugarit seem to have taken place outside temples as well and buildings may have combined religious and more secular functions.46 Mycenaean artefacts have been discovered in contexts which are classified here as domestic but also have religious connotations. An example in point are the finds made in the Maison du prêtre Hurrite in RS SA (cat. nos. 247, 288, 294, 306, 498, 499)«

Four broad categories of contexts have been distinguished: Funerary, meaning that the find is made in a tomb or in the dromos leading to it; Domestic, in which case the artefact was found in a house on the floor, or in a layer that can be associated with upper floors; Ritual, which means that the object was found in a building that clearly served as a temple, sanctuary or in other clear 'cultic' circumstances; and Settlement, which signifies that the object was found in the settlement, but cannot be attributed to a specific building: finds in streets, squares, etc. Refuse contexts, such as pits in which pottery is discarded, have not been distinguished separatly. They have been attributed to a domestic context if the pit could be assigned to a house and to a settlement context if this was not the case.

46 Tarragon 1995, 209-210

47 Courtois 1979a, 1269-1277; 1979b 112-113; Yon 2000, 10.

style

funerary

domestic

ritual

settlement

unknown

II-IIIA1

1

1

2

4

IIIA2

41

5

3

1

48

IIIA2-IIIB

19

16

2

4

40

IIIB

131

49

14

5

145

Total

192

70

20

12

Table 5.4

Mycenaean pottery was used in Ugarit and its harbour town under different circumstances. This appears to have been the case everywhere in the city, as the pottery is found in most areas in more than one type of context.48 The absence of funerary contexts for Mycenaean pottery in the recently excavated Centre Ville seems remarkable. However, this area has produced only two tombs, one of which was out of use during the Late Bronze Age; the second tomb was found virtually empty as a result of looting.49 The evidence so far does not suggest that Mycenaean pottery was used only in specific situations. This class of material seems to have been appropriate for domestic use and to have been included in religious and funerary ceremonies.

The subdivision of the Late Helladic and Late Minoan pottery at Minet el-Beida and Ras Shamra according to chronological ceramic styles is presented in Table 5.3 in four groups.50 It is important to realise that the designation IIIA2-IIIB does not refer to a chronological group, but to those specimens which cannot be dated more accurately. Also important is the fact that the stylistic ceramic phases do not necessarily correspond to archaeological strata at Ras Shamra and Minet el-Beida. From Table 5.3 it is apparent that Aegean vessels from the early part of the Late Bronze Age are scarce at Ras Shamra and Minet el-Beida. Of the eight specimens listed here, one is Minoan (cat. no. 408: LM IIIA1) and another possibly so (cat. no. 161: LH IIA/LM IB).51 Although the figures point to a concentration of these early vessels in the harbour town and in the Ville Sud, the occurrence of a small handleless jar (FS 77) of LH IIB-LH IIIA1 date in RS QR (cat. no. 207) indicates that such products were more widely distributed.

Vessels in LH IIIA2 and LH IIIB styles are widely distributed all over the site. Of all excavated parts of Ras Shamra, the Ville Basse is the only one where more LH IIIA2 pots have been found than vessels in LH IIIB style. This may partly be explained by the observation that almost all Mycenaean finds in this area were made in tombs (see Table 5.2), which in general have produced a relatively high proportion of LH IIIA2 ware (see Table 5.4). The Centre Ville, on the contrary, shows a high proportion

48 The exceptions are the trenches which comprise singular buildings (RS PS and RS NNO), those which are much smaller than others (RS TTE, RS SC and RS SW), and the ambiguous area of RS PR/PS.

Another exception is the Quartier Nord Ouest, from which few Mycenaean finds in general have been pub lished.

49 Yon, Caubet, Mallet 1982, 179; Salles 1987, 173.

50 Because the classification of the figurines is not as sharply chronologically defined as that of pottery (French 1971), they are not included in Table 5.3.

51 Furumark 1941a, 610 (FS 164: 11) initially assigned the stirrup jar with cat. no. 408 to LH IIIA1. Hankey (1979, 149: no. 10) later established its Minoan origin: LM IIIA1.

site area

dinner

storage

ritual

figurines

unknown

Minet el-Beida

70

47

15

23

13

RS Acr.

11

10

2

3

2

RS PR

2

1

1

1

1

RS QR

25

15

9

2

13

RS NO

2

1

1

RS VB

8

25

4

2

1

RS SA

17

18

9

9

5

RS VS

35

32

4

2

7

RS CV

17

17

11

15

16

RS Ch. C

4

3

2

RS TTE

2

4

3

1

RS SC

6

0

2

RS SW

2

5

RS PS

6

3

3

RS NNO

0

2

RS PR/PS

1

1

RS unknown

20

10

2

2

3

RS or MeB

3

1

1

Total

231

192

64

62

Table 5.5

of LH IIIB pottery in comparison with the one specimen in LH IIIA2 style (cat. no. 464). This is explicable as the research in this area has focused on the latest habitation level.

The contextual distribution of Mycenaean vessels in the various ceramic styles, is presented in Table 5.4, which shows clearly that all chronological styles have been found in all types of contexts. The only exception in this case is that no LH II-LH IIIA1 sherds have been found in a domestic context. This would be an important observation arguing against a domestic use of these early vessels. However, the total number of specimens seems too small to draw such a conclusion. As far as differences in contextual distribution can be discerned between finds in LH IIIA2 and LH IIIB styles, a higher proportion of the later ceramic phase was found in a domestic context. This is, of course, explicable, as the end of LH IIIA2 dates long before the abandonment of Ugarit.

The question as to whether the chronological ceramic styles of the Mycenaean pottery correspond to the stratigraphical sequence of Minet el-Beida and Ras Shamra is difficult to address without explicit reference to stratigraphy in the publications.52 The fact that a lower proportion of LH IIIA2 vessels was found in domestic contexts seems to suggest that these vessels were not actively in use during the final phase of Ugarit. There are only two finds, which may be evidence of the long use of Mycenaean ceramic vessels. The first of these concerns a fragment in LH IIA/LM IB style (cat. no. 161), which was found in Minet el-Beida, reportedly in direct association with a cuneiform tablet.53

52 In many places at Ras Shamra, three subsequent floor levels are attested of Ugarit Récent 3; see Courtois 1974, 100. According to Courtois these three layers are reflected in the deposition of the pottery.

53 Schaeffer 1949, 226: no. 13. Schaeffer mentions that the finds were made in Minet el-Beida in 1929 near tomb IV. The tablet is not mentioned by Saade (1995, 214-215) in his overview of the texts found in the harbour town.

ceramic phase

dinner

storage

ritual

unknown

II-IIIA1

1

4

1

2

IIIA2

38

46

9

5

IIIA2-IIIB

34

23

9

15

IIIB

153

115

45

31

undatable

5

4

14

Total

231

192

64

Table 5.6

The ceramic style of this fragment points to a date between 1500 and 1450 BC according to traditional chronology. However, all cuneiform tablets are said to date from Ugarit Récent 3, e.g. after 1365 BC.54 Unfortunately, any further information about the tablet or its find circumstances is absent. A second case of a find made in a deposit that should be dated much later than its chronological style concerns a complete Mycenaean alabastron (cat. no. 464) that was found in a habitation level of the latest phase at Ugarit in Maison C of the Centre Ville.55 It has been dated to LH IIIA2 and, if this is true, it would pre-date its context.56 These type of alabastra, however, are notoriously difficult to assign a date stylistically. There is therefore no real evidence for Aegean vessels which were still in use in Ugarit and its harbour town long after their manufacture.57

Mycenaean pottery can also be subdivided according to functional vessel types (cf. fig. 2.2 and Table I). The figures in Table 5.5 show that dinner vessels are somewhat more common than storage vessels in Minet el-Beida and Ras Shamra. This pattern applies to most areas of Ras Shamra: of all large excavated areas, only the Ville Basse shows a strong dominance of storage over dinner vessels. It is unlikely that this is related to the high proportion of tomb finds in this area (Table 5.2). Minet el-Beida, RS Acr., RS Ch. C. and to a lesser extent in the Ville Sud have also yielded many Mycenaean finds from tombs, but they include predominantly dinner vessels. A possible relation might exist with the observation made above that the Ville Basse is the only area that has produced more finds from the LH IIIA2 stylistic phase than from LH IIIB. It can be deduced from Table 5.6 that the dominance of dinner vessels is most marked among finds from the latest stylistic ceramic phase, while among early finds and among those from LH/LM IIIA2 storage vessels are the more numerous.

In the Sud Acropole and the recently excavated Centre Ville the numbers of dinner and storage vessels are balanced. This is remarkable, because in both areas most finds by far are from the LH IIIB period (Table 5.3). A connection of this phenomenon with the rather low number of tomb finds from these areas is likely. The absence of storage vessels in the Palais Sud may also be noted. As far as the spatial

54 Van Soldt 1986, 57.

55 Yon, Gachet & Lombard 1987, 178-179. The vessel was found with another alabastron (cat. no. 463) underneath a staircase.

56 This date is given by Leonard 1994, 36: no. 393, most probably on the basis of the carefully executed N-pat-tern (FM 60:2) and the relatively slight concavity of the sides and convexity of the base.

57 Another possible example is a part of a LH IIIA2 rhy-

ton (cat. no. 287), which was found in a domestic context in the maison à portique à base de colonne in the Quartier Résidentielle (Courtois & Courtois 1978, 308: no. 18). However, the depth of the find is not mentioned. The sherd of a LH IIIA2 mug (cat. no. 201), which was found at street level in the Ville Sud (Courtois & Courtois 1978, 292: no. 2) may have been deposited there long before the final days of Ugarit.

context

dinner

storage

ritual

figurines

unknown

Funerary

77

102

B

13

10

Domestic

3B

19

13

4

4

Ritual

8

4

14

3

12

Settlement

3

B

0

9

B

unkown

108

B2

32

33

3B

Total

231

192

B4

B2

B7

Table 5.7

site area

d.c.w. plain

linear

patterned

pictorial

plastic

decorated

Minet el-Beida

3

1

22

98

17

4

RS Acr.

2

14

4

2

3

RS PR

2

1

2

RS QR

9

39

7

4

3

RS NO

2

1

1

RS VB

13

19

4

2

RS SA

2

B

2B

13

4

RS VS

18

49

8

1

2

RS CV

1

24

19

4

13

RS Ch.C

2

4

1

2

RS TTE

4

3

2

1

RS SC

1

B

1

RS SW

B

1

1

RS PS

2

4

2

1

RS NNO

2

RS PR/PS

2

RS unknown

9

17

9

RS or MeB

1

2

2

Total B 1 118 299 82 19 29

Total B 1 118 299 82 19 29

Table 5.8

distribution of ritual vessels and figurines is concerned, it is apparent that they are rather homogeneously distributed. All important areas have yielded both categories; only the absence of rhyta in the Palais Sud, where there is a rather high proportion of figurines, may be of some significance.

Table 5.7 presents the contextual distribution Mycenaean vessels belonging to the various ceramic functional categories. It is clear that storage vessels predominate in funerary contexts, while in domestic environments dinner vessels occur more often. It is, however, not possible to define restrictions of use of the different functional types on the basis of this observation, as all types have been found in all contexts. Moreover, the presence of equal numbers of dinner and storage vessels in the domestic contexts of the Centre Ville shows that both categories were used in similar circumstances. The fourteen rhyta which have been found in ritual contexts seem to indicate that this type of vessel had a predominantly ritual use. However, eleven of these rhyta derive from one and the same sanctuary: the sanctuaire aux rhytons in the Centre Ville.5" A significant number of rhyta have been found in contexts which

site area

various animals

bulls

man

chariot

Minet el-Beida

11

1

3

2

RS Acr.

1

1

2

RS PR

1

RS QR

1

2

4

RS NO

1

RS VB

4

RS SA

7

2

3

1

RS VS

7

1

RS CV

2

2

RS Ch. C

1

RS TTE

1

1

RS SC

1

1

RS SW

1

RS PS

1

1

RS NNO

RS PR/PS

RS VS/CV

RS unknown

1

2

6

RS or MeB

1

Total

Table 5.9

were not clearly ritual and have been classified here as 'domestic'. Figurines likewise do not seem to have been restricted to specific kinds of contexts.

A last subdivision of the Mycenaean pottery can be made according to decorative style or ware. The classification used here makes a distinction between coarse ware and fine ware.59 This latter group includes both plain vessels and others with linear, patterned, pictorial or plastic decoration. The term 'decorated' is used when fine ware is concerned of which the type of decoration is unknown. Table 5.8 represents the spatial distribution of these wares in Ras Shamra and Minet el-Beida. From this table it is immediately clear that undecorated Aegean pottery is extremely scarce at the two sites. The one specimen from Minet el-Beida that is listed as plain ware (cat. no. 50) is a lid (FS 334) which may well have belonged to a decorated vase.60 The six coarse ware vessels listed here are all large stirrup jars with painted decoration.61 Four of these vessels are surely of Minoan origin, the two others possibly so.62 The occurrence of such stirrup jars in the Sud Acropole of Ras Shamra and in RS CV shows that the use of these transport vessels was not limited to the harbour town.

Among the decorated fine ware, specimens with patterned decoration are dominant. This predominance of patterned decoration should probably be considered even more marked, as linear decorated

59 Mycenaean vessels of undecorated coarse ware have not been reported from Ras Shamra and Minet elBeida. The decorated coarse ware is listed here in the column 'd.c.w.' Figurines are excluded from this section.

60 Leonard (1994, 127-128) mentions collar-necked jars and straight-sided alabastra as pot shapes to which such a lid could have belonged

62 Of certain Minoan origin are: cat. nos. 408, 474, 475, 476. The specimens with cat. nos. 477 and 478 are designated here as Helladic, but are possibly Minoan.

ware

funerary

domestic

ritual

settlement

unknown

d.c.w

3

1

1

1

plain ware

1

linear

52

13

12

1

40

patterned

117

28

15

6

133

pictorial

13

17

4

2

46

plastic

2

3

14

decorated

4

11

6

2

3

worn off

2

1

0

Total

194

73

38

12

Table 5.10

sherds may have belonged to patterned (or pictorial) vessels. It is remarkable that the only important area presenting an exception to the predominance of patterned ware is the recently excavated Centre Ville. This calls into question the reliability of the figures in Table 5.8 for the areas which were excavated earlier. However, it also needs to be noted that the Centre Ville is the only important area from which tomb finds, which are generally more complete, are not reported. Moreover, this area has the highest proportion of sherds of which no illustrations are available to me.

Pictorial pottery has been found in all major areas of Ugarit and in its harbour town. Although a proportionally large amount of this type of pottery comes from the Sud Acropole, it does not seem to have been restricted to certain areas. The six pictorial vessels which come from the relatively small area of RS SC may indicate that this kind of pottery was particularly abundant among the inhabitants living there.63 The spatial distribution of pictorial motives is presented in Table 5.9 below. Most pictorial vessels show animals such as deer, stag, birds, etc.64 The second most frequent theme is the chariot scene, while scenes showing men engaged in other activities and bulls also occur. The fact that all of these motives have been found in various areas in Ras Shamra and in Minet el-Beida seems to indicate that the iconography of the decoration did not determine the on-site distribution.

The final category of pottery to be considered is vessels with plastic decoration, in all cases zoomorphic rhyta.65 These vessels have been found in most of the important areas of Ras Shamra and in Minet el-Beida. The Chantier C has produced a relatively large amount of such vessels, for which there is no apparent explanation. In contrast, zoomorphic vessels have not been reported from the Centre Ville. As the rhyta stylistically belong to the LH IIIA2, LH IIIA2-LH IIIB and LH IIIB phases, it is unlikely that their absence from RS CV is caused by the paucity of LH IIIA2 pottery in this area. Nor, as will be seen below, can this absence be related to the fact that most finds in this area are from domestic contexts. In any case, the occurrence of plastically decorated vessels in various areas indicates that their use was not spatially restricted.

63 Five pictorial amphoroid kraters (cat. nos. 516, 551554) were found in the so-called house of Ourtenu, indicating that this wealthy trader may have assembled this type of vessel, see Yon 1995, 440; 2000, 8, 13.

64 Apart from bulls, the following animals occur: octopus

(11 x), birds (10 x), fish (10 x), stag (2 x), goat (2 x), deer (1 x), horse (1 x)

65 The animals attested are: hedgehog (8 x), animal head (7 x), and fish (3 x). In one case (cat. no. 172), a horse's head is attached to the rim of a rhyton of possible local manufacture.

Fig. 5.2 Mycenaean amphoroid krater fragments with drilled hole (cat. nos. 489-492, 494-496) - After Schaeffer 1949, 233 fig. 98: nos. 7, 12.

The contextual distribution of the decorative styles and wares is shown in Table 5.10. Of the six coarse ware stirrup jars in Ugarit, three have been found in tombs66 and one in a sanctuary.67 These contexts may be somewhat surprising in view of the alleged function of these vessels as utilitarian jars for bulk transportation of liquids.68 Even though the sample of six such vessels is rather small, it appears that they could have been used at Ugarit and its harbour in funerary and religious ceremonies. The linear, patterned and pictorial pottery appears in all type of contexts. Neither of these categories seems to have been restricted to specific circumstances. With regard to the pictorial pottery, it is remarkable that it is more often reported from a domestic than from a funerary context. Although the high number of pictorial vessels from unknown context calls for caution, they do not appear to have had a primarily funerary function. Mycenaean vessels with plastic decoration have been found in both funerary and domestic contexts, but not in religious or clear cultic circumstances. However, considering the likelihood of religious practices conducted outside sanctuaries, a ritual function for plastically decorated pots cannot be excluded on these grounds.

Tombs III and V in Minet el-Beida each yielded one coarse ware stirrup jar (cat. nos. 474 and 475 respectively), while tomb 4093 in the Sud Acropole also contained such a vessel (cat. no. 478).

The stirrup jar with cat. no. 462 was found in the sanctuary in the Centre Ville. A similar context is possi ble for the vessel with cat. no. 408, which was found in a deposit inside the enceinte in Minet el-Beida, which was designated as ritual by Schaeffer (1932, 5) on the basis of many votive pits.

68 Haskell 1990.

Fig 5.3 Photograph: Mycenaean conical rhyton with octopus in situ —Photograph from Schaeffer 1949, 218 fig. 91A

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