Settlement contexts

The structures at Broglio di Trebisacce in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages are characterised by posts at a relative large distance from one another, sometimes set in a ditch, while stones are used for reinforcements only.38 Mycenaean pottery has been found in association with only three of the total of seven architectural structures that have been identified at the site. Thirty-eight Aegean-type finds are

37 Vagnetti & Panichelli (1994, 405-406) suggest the possibility that the decoration of the sherds with cat. no. 1285 constitutes a bird (FM 7). If so, this sherd would constitute the only pictorial specimen found at

Broglio. However, the strange loop on the larger frag-

ment, as well as the occurrence of a type of net pattern on vessels from the same vase, make it highly unlikely that it is a bird motif; J.H. Crouwel, pers. comm. 38 Trucco 1994, 99-100.

associated with a structure of which traces have been discovered in areas D east and D west.39 The remains of this structure, however, are too scanty for further analysis.

Area B-B west: Late Bronze Age structure (levels 2A-2B)40

At level 2B in trench B west, a few stretches of battered earth were uncovered. Six post holes uncovered in the same level indicate the presence of an architectural structure in this area. In the adjacent trench B, three post holes have been found in level 2, as well as an occupation surface at the same level in the eastern part of the trench. Even though it is not entirely certain whether the remains from trenches B and B west belong to the same building phase, the reconstruction shows a large rectangular building. Level 2B is associated with this structure, while level 2A, in which three post holes were attested, either belongs to the same building or to a slightly later phase. Both strata have been dated to the Late Bronze Age.

Eight Aegean-type finds may be associated with this building. Three fragments from level 2B (cat. nos. 1213-1215) are decorated with lines only, but a fragment with patterned decoration found between 2A and 2B has been assigned to a LH IIIB2-LH IIIC collar-necked jar (cat. no. 1216). Level 2A yielded one linear fragment (cat. no. 1218) and one (cat. no. 1217) with patterned decoration which has been classified as LM IIIB. Level 2B west in trench B also produced a linear fragment (cat. no. 1010), as well as an imported LH IIIA2-LH IIIB fragment from a straight-sided alabastron (cat. no. 1), the only one of its kind found at Broglio. Level 2B also yielded bowls, cups, jars and cooking pots in local impasto, as well as carinated cups and bowls in wheel-made grey ware and some fragments from rounded dolia41 Pounders and pestles and a piece of engraved bone were also found.

It is of interest to note that the two Mycenaean vessels of which the type can be identified are closed pot shapes, while in other ceramic classes there is a high proportion of dinner vessels. It should also be noted that an original import and a fragment of local manufacture with Minoan affiliations were present in this house. It is at this stage uncertain whether these pots and the object of worked bone should be considered luxury objects.

Area D: complesso a monte (levels 1A-1B) (Fig. 17.2)42

This building was situated directly above the steep descent of the southern slope and, in fact, only the northern half has been recovered, the southern part having been washed down the hill. Six post holes and several lines of field stones have been identified. The reconstruction shows a horse shoe-shaped building (Fig. 17.2). The floor of the building, consisting of battered earth, was in the west substantially higher than in the east and a wooden floor may have been used to make up for the difference. On the floor, two large stones and the remains of two small ovens were found. In the northernmost corner a series of stones was laid, below which a possible foundation offering was found: an impasto bowl with an engraved swastika and one of the handles removed. Above the floor, two strata were excavated. Layer 1B, which was situated directly above the floor, is to be associated with the period of use of the building, while layer 1A probably constitutes a fill dating to the period after the abandonment of the building, but joints connect it to layer 1B.43

39 Trucco 1994, 93-95.

40 Bergonzi & Cardarelli 1982a; Peroni 1984, 17; Peroni & Trucco 1994, 32-36; Trucco 1994, 97-99.

41 Bergonzi & Cardarelli 1982b, 47; 1984, 151; Capofieri

& Giardino 1984a, 58; Belardelli 1994, 270; Giardino

1994a, 185-195; Tenaglia 1994, 347.

42 Peroni 1982b, 15-21; 1984b, 19-27; Barbieri, Peroni & Trucco 1984, 15-28. For the reconstruction of the complex, see Barbieri, Peroni & Trucco 1984, 33-36; Trucco 1994, 95-97.

43 Peroni 1982b, 21; 1984, 19.

  1. 17.3 Ceramic objects from the floor of the complesso a monte: Aegean-type amphora (cat. no. 1146), impasto and grey ware carinated cups, dolium — After Vagnetti 1984b, 172 Plate 46: no. 3; Capofieri & Giardino 1984b, 67 Plate 2: no. 6; Belardelli 1984, 136 Plate 29: no. 12; Buffa1984a, 165 Plate 41: no. 4.
  2. 17.3 Ceramic objects from the floor of the complesso a monte: Aegean-type amphora (cat. no. 1146), impasto and grey ware carinated cups, dolium — After Vagnetti 1984b, 172 Plate 46: no. 3; Capofieri & Giardino 1984b, 67 Plate 2: no. 6; Belardelli 1984, 136 Plate 29: no. 12; Buffa1984a, 165 Plate 41: no. 4.

On the floor of the building three Aegean-type vessels have been found (Fig. 17.3). A small fragment of a LH IIIC deep bowl (cat. no. 1145) decorated with a wavy line was recovered at the western end of the pavement. Part of an LM IIIB-style amphora (cat. no. 1146) decorated with linked whorl shells was found in the area of the little ovens, while several fragments of the same vase were also found in levels 1B and 1A. The same levels contained fragments of a similar vase (cat. no. 1049) decorated with isolated semicircles and paneled patterns found in the north-eastern part. These vessels were associated with three carinated cups and a jar in local impasto, as well as with a carinated cup in grey ware and three dolium fragments.44

In level 1B a small fragment of an imported open vessel (cat. no. 4) decorated with a possible spiral was found, as well as a fragment of an imported closed pot (cat. no. 5).45 A number of amphorae (cat. nos. 1019, 1033, 1152-1156, 1164) were also discovered, most of which with Minoan affiliations. In addition, level 1B contained another LH IIIC deep bowl (cat. no. 1151), along with some cups and bowls of uncertain shape dated to LH IIIB-LH IIIC (cat. nos. 1029, 1030, 1148, 1163). The level also

44 Capofieri & Giardino 1984b, 68; Belardelli 1984, 137; dicates that it may have been produced in Italy, but not Buffa 1984a, 161. in the region of Broglio; see Vagnetti & Panichelli

45 The chemical composition of the clay of this vessel in- 1994, 399.

produced a full range of open and closed shapes in local impasto, as well as a variety of carinated cups, bowls and jars in wheel-made grey ware and eleven dolia fragments.46

Level 1A was particularly rich in ceramic finds.47 Apart from a full range of vessels in local impasto, grey ware, and dolia, fifty-nine Mycenaean-type finds were made, among which is a small fragment of an imported jar (cat. no. 3) with linear decoration. Locally made carinated cups (cat. nos. 1023, 1061, 1166) in LH IIIB style, as well as LH IIIB mugs (cat. nos. 1169-1182), a LH IIIB-LH IIIC deep bowl (cat. no. 1168) and a possible LH IIIC krater or bowl (cat. no. 1070) were also found. Among storage vessels, amphorae (cat. nos. 1025, 1026, 1167, 1173, 1183, 1184) in LM IIIB-LM IIIC style were most numerous, although two similar fragments (1054, 1072) showed Helladic affiliations. The level also produced a small fragment of a possible coarse ware stirrup jar (cat. no. 1021). All the bronzes associated with the complesso a monte - a ring, a fragment of a vase, a violin fibula and a fragment of a pendant - came from level 1A as well.48

The direct association of Aegean-type pottery with various classes of local material show that it was an integral part of the material culture in this building. It may be noted that Aegean-type storage and dinner vessels are both well represented. This corresponds to the repertoirs of types in local impasto and grey ware. There are no indications that the two imports associated with this building were regarded differently from locally made Aegean type pottery.

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