Settlement contexts

In Table VI, which is presented in the tables section of this book, all the non-funerary contexts in Enkomi have been listed in which Mycenaean pottery could be related to specific structures or activities. Many of these concern finds in leveling strata of which very little can be said, while in other cases we only know that a Mycenaean pot has been found. In some structures, such as in the so-called Ashlar building in area Q4W, most of the Mycenaean-type finds are in LH IIIC style.54 Even though earlier finds in these structures may indicate a prolonged use of Mycenaean vessels, they will not be discussed here. It must be emphasised that in many cases the Mycenaean (and other) ceramic finds in these buildings consisted of fragments only.

The so-called fortress was a large, free-standing building of massive construction, containing at least two courtyards and seventeen rooms. The building possessed two entrances, both in the southern façade. During LC IB the western part of the building was completely devoted to metal working activities; a fragment of a clay tablet with Cypro-Minoan script in room 103 is possible testimony of ad-

Fig. 10.2 Enkomi: Mycenaean pottery in the so-called Fortress

54 Dikaios (1971, 485-486) claimed that LH IIIC sherds had been found in the make-up of the earliest floors of his Ashlar building and he dated the house to the LC IIIA period. Others, however, have stated that the construction of the building took place during LC IIC. In any case, it is clear that the major phases of occupation fall beyond the limits of the period which is investigated here.

55 Dikaios 1969, 16-34; 1971, 543-553.

Fig. 10.3 Enkomi: Mycenaean pottery in the Q1W level IIA building

ministration of these activities. The eastern part of the building served residential purposes. The eastern entrance led to room 112, in which a succession of floors was attested, on the uppermost of which a fragment of a LH IIIA1 rounded alabastron (cat. no. 933) was found. From room 112, one could reach the three smaller rooms 113-115. In room 114, a well has been found and near the eastern wall there was a pit in which an amphora of Syro-Palestinian type was discovered. Floor VII of this room produced a fragment of a LH I rounded alabastron (cat. no. 932). A Syro-Palestinian amphora was also found in room 115, together with a LH I semi-globular cup (cat. no. 930). East of these three rooms was a courtyard and a kind of portico. Within the portico, in room 118 part of a LH I semi-globular cup (cat. no. 931) was found.

It is important to realise that the fortress covers a long period of use and that the Mycenaean and other finds may not have been in use simultaneously. Nevertheless, the Mycenaean pottery in this building is concentrated in the residential part, where imports from other areas have also been discovered. This shows that Mycenaean vessels during this early period were restricted to specific activities and it is likely that they were of special significance for the residents of this large house, who most probably were in control of metalworking facilities aimed at overseas exchange.56 The Mycenaean pottery in this building, then, is part of an inventory invoking wealth and international relationships. In this respect, it may be of significance that Mycenaean pottery dating to this period has not been reported from settlement contexts elsewhere on the site.

Q1W level IIA building - LC IIA-LC IIB57 (Fig. 10.3)

At the beginning of LC IIA, a new building was constructed at the site of the LC I fortress, which remained in use until the end of LC IIB. The ground plan of the new building consisted of three aisles around a central court, which was open on its northern side (Fig. 10.3). The long southern façade

56 Keswani 1996, 222. Courtois (1982, 161) identifies ev- stricted to the fortress.

idence for metal working in the same period in area 57 Dikaios 1969, 34-46, 310, 1971, 554-560.

Q5W, which indicates that such activities were not re-

Broken Antique Pottery Png
Fig. 10.4 Enkomi: Mycenaean pottery in the Q1W level IIB building

was broken up by a number of entrances. The westernmost entrance led to room 77, which had traces of copper smelting. In this room, above a floor, a fragment of a LH IIIA2 stirrup jar (cat. no. 966) was found. One could continue to room 8, which was probably used as a basement. Here, parts of a Mycenaean one-handled bowl were found (cat. no. 962). In the large room 5 a pit containing many animal bones was discovered, while a slab of baked clay indicated the position of a hearth. In this room, which has been interpreted as an area for food preparation, fragments of two Mycenaean vessels were found on the original floor: a shallow cup (cat. no. 961) and a LH IIIA2 amphoroid krater (cat. no. 968) decorated with a bull or goat. The succession of floors in this room produced a range of Mycenaean fragments, among which were six shallow cups (cat. nos. 960, 1189, 1190, 1193, 1194, 1196), two kraters (cat. nos. 1191, 1192), a stirrup jar (cat. no. 1197) and a flask (cat. no. 1195).58 From room 5, one could go to the large central courtyard, where a handle of a Mycenaean am-phoroid krater (cat. no. 969) was found, together with the remains of copper working.

The central entrance to the building was probably in room 20. This part of the building presumably served as its residential section. Part of a Mycenaean piriform jar (cat. no. 964) was discovered just above the original floor of room 12, while a fragment of another piriform jar (cat. no. 963) was found in the same room at a higher level. a Syro-Palestinian amphora was found on the original floor in room 43. The north-eastern part of the building has been interpreted as fulfilling a variety of domestic purposes. Room 54 was probably a courtyard; a Mycenaean piriform jar fragment (cat. no. 963) was discovered here.

Mycenaean pottery is widely distributed in this building and has been found interspersed with objects testifying of daily activities. This indicates that this pottery was an integral part of the material culture of the inhabitants of the building. The clearest signs of copper working have been attested in room 77 and room 54. The occurrence of a stirrup jar and two piriform jars in these rooms suggests

58 The high concentration of Mycenaean finds in this room is caused by the fact that Dikaios (1969, 310) has included this room in a section on 'special groups' of pottery which could be used to study the stratigraphy in detail. The vessels from this room derive from different levels in the room and it is uncertain whether similar layers in other rooms contained this much Mycenaean pottery.

Fig. 10.5 Mycenaean kylix and chalice found together with Cypriot dinner vessels in room 3A of the level IIB building — Photograph taken from Dikaios 1969 vol IIIa, Plate 67 nos. 1, 20.

that storage vessels in particular were associated with these industrial activities. The one-handled bowl in basement 8, however, shows that a Mycenaean dinner vessel also could occur in association with copper working. Moreover, the two Mycenaean piriform jars in room 12 show that storage vessels were present in a residential part of the building. The rooms with signs of a variety of domestic functions have produced mainly Mycenaean dinner vessels, although storage pots were present as well.

Q1W level IIB building - LC IIC59 (Fig. 10.4)

After the destruction at the end of LC IIB, a new structure was built in Q1W at the beginning of LC IIC. The building consisted of three distinct sections, each fulfilling specific functions.60 In the central section, a copper workshop was installed in the large room 1. In this room were found four Mycenaean shallow bowls (cat. nos. 1030, 1031, 1032, 1035), a fragment of an amphoroid krater with a chariot scene (cat. 1020) and a large coarse ware stirrup jar (cat. no. 1045), probably of Minoan origin. To the south of this workshop, a group of smaller rooms produced evidence for artisan activities. In room 34 a LH IIIA2 fragment (cat. no. 1168) was found together with an ivory pin, a wall bracket and a terra-cotta bead. West of this group of rooms was a residential area. In room 3A Base Ring and White Slip bowls were found, together with a Mycenaean kylix (cat. no. 1024) and chalice (cat. no. 1038) (Fig. 10.5). A locally produced derivative of a Mycenaean shallow bowl was also found here. Together with animal bones these vessels indicate that dining occurred in this room. In the rooms 3B and 3C, which also belonged to the residential section, a variety of luxury objects, such as a silver ring, a paste bead, a bone stylus and a cylinder seal were found. To the south, rooms 32A and 32B were courtyards; two Mycenaean shallow cups (cat. nos. 1018, 1019) were found here. One could

59 Dikaios 1969, 46-66; 1971, 561-571. and the rooms do not communicate. One could argue

60 These sections are separated from each other by walls that they represent independent entities.

Fig. 10.6 Enkomi: Mycenaean pottery in the Q4W level lib structure

continue to room 27, where a bird-shaped fragment, probably from a Mycenaean ostrich egg rhyton (FS 201) was discovered (cat. no. 1044), together with a bowl of white glass. A Mycenaean shallow cup (cat. no. 1028) and shallow bowl (cat. no. 1037) were also found here. A pit with three grinders and deer antlers testify of food preparation in room 16; three Mycenaean shallow cups (cat. nos. 1011, 1012, 1017) were also discovered in this pit. Via a staircase in room 21, one could reach room 13, where a fragment of a Mycenaean bull's head rhyton (cat. no. 1046) was found, in association with a clay ball with engraved Cypro-Minoan signs.

The western section of the building has produced the most extensive evidence for copper working. In room 7 a plastered floor and a well suggest water-related activities; a LH IIIB-LH IIIC deep bowl (cat. no. 1029) was found on the latest level of this room. Room 8 contained a bench, in the masonry of which a Mycenaean krater fragment was found (cat. no. 1023). On the floor of this room crucibles, copper slag, a cylinder seal and six clay balls with Cypro-Minoan signs were discovered, as well as three Mycenaean shallow cups (cat. nos. 1014, 1015, 1016) and an amphoroid krater fragment (cat. no. 1022). Slag dumps were located to the north-west of the building. Two Mycenaean shallow bowls (cat. nos. 1255-1256) and a fragment (cat. no. 1254) were found in these dumps.

The eastern section of the building has been interpreted as serving a variety of domestic and industrial functions. Room 56 produced a cylinder seal, a stone bead and a Mycenaean chariot krater (cat. no. 1021), as well as a small globular jug (cat. no. 1040). Room 54, probably a courtyard, produced a Mycenaean ring-based krater (cat. no. 1026) and a stirrup jar (cat. no. 1042).

A few concentrations of this pottery are visible in this building: in room 1 in the central section and in rooms 7 and 8 in the eastern section. Both areas can be associated with copper working, indicating that Mycenaean kraters, bowls, cups and stirrup jars, were associated with these activities. The domestic part in the centre of the building has produced a number of Mycenaean vessels of types which are not very frequent at Enkomi: a bull's head rhyton, a fragment probably deriving from an ostrich egg rhyton, a kylix and a chalice (Fig. 10.5). The two Mycenaean drinking vessels were found together with similar vases of Cypriot manufacture. This indicates that Mycenaean cups were not appreciated any more or less than local drinking vessels. It is, of course, interesting that the bull's-head and ostrich egg rhyta have been found close together. They may be testimony of the use of Aegean vessels in ritual ceremonies in this part of the house.

Q4W level IIB structure - LC IIC61 (Fig. 10.6)

In Q4W, in the beginning of LC IIC, a large structure was built with an elaborate architectural layout, comprising at least three courtyards and some forty rooms.62 Two fragments of a LH IIB-LH IIIA1 stemmed cup (cat. no. 971) were found in courtyard A, together with part of a LH IIIB ring-based krater (cat. no. 1006) decorated with a bull; a shallow cup fragment (cat. no. 975) was also discovered here. The mud-and-mortar floors of rooms 139 and 140 as well as their location suggest that these rooms served residential purposes. In room 140, fragments of a Mycenaean stemmed cup (cat. no. 972), a shallow cup (cat. no. 975) and a LH IIIB fragment (cat. no. 1005) were found, but all in the make-up of the floor or just below it. In the larger room 139 fragments of a Mycenaean piriform jar (cat. no. 1001), a stemmed cup (cat. no. 970), a krater (cat. 1004) and a shallow bowl (cat. no. 988) were found in levels above the floors, showing that dinner as well as storage vessels were used in this part of the house.

In the eastern wing (rooms 51, 52, 122-126, 133-134), which probably had a residential purpose, few objects were found on the floors. The central part of the structure adjoined a courtyard on both the northern and southern sides. In room 136 part of a LH IIIB deep bowl (cat. no. 982) was found on floor IV, which produced very few other finds. The north-western wing of the building (rooms 102, 112, 127-130, 144, 142-145) included the remains of the level IIA building. Few finds have been reported from this area, but the stratigraphic description of room 142 reveals that fragments of Mycenaean stirrup jars (cat. nos. 998, 1010), jugs (cat. no. 997, 1167), shallow cups (cat. nos. 973, 983, 1162, 1163, 1164, 1166), shallow bowls (cat. nos. 987, 992, 1169-1170) and of a cylindrical cup (cat. no. 985) and a piriform jar occurred on and between the floors attributed to LC IIC. The presence of such a wide variety of Mycenaean vessel types together suggests that these were appreciated similarly. In the north-eastern corner of the building, rooms 104 and 105 are somewhat isolated from the rest of the house. Room 104 yielded Cypriot hand-made sherds, as well as Base Ring and White Slip II vessels. A Mycenaean amphoroid krater fragment with a chariot scene (cat. no. 977) was found in this room as well, just as shreds from a LH IIIB kylix (cat. no. 995) and a shallow bowl (cat. no. 986).

61 Dikaios 1969, 163-170; 1971, 561, 573.

62 Dikaios (1969, 168) considered the building to be one coherent whole, but the presence of three courtyards, one of which separates the southern and northern parts, suggests that the structure may have consisted of more than one house.

Mycenaean pottery appears to be concentrated in the southern, north-western and north-eastern sections of this building. However, this picture is caused by the lack of finds in the other rooms. Because of these circumstances the cultural associations of the Mycenaean pottery in this building are not fully known. Signs of industrial activities have not been reported; the structure appears to have possessed a predominantly residential character. A wide range of Mycenaean vessels, among them two pictorial kraters, was part of the inventory of this building.

The purpose of this section was to determine whether a differentiation can be made within the general class of Mycenaean pottery in its occurrence in settlement levels at Enkomi. In terms of repertoire, it is clear that the LC IIA-LC IIB building yielded a wide variety of Mycenaean pots. A similar variety of stirrup jars, piriform jars, amphoroid kraters, shallow cups, bowls and a number of jugs has been published from a room in the contemporary building in Q4W63 The variety of Mycenaean vessel types was even higher in the LC IIC phase, when kylikes, ring-based kraters and deep bowls were added to the repertoire. The two investigated LC IIC buildings have produced more or less the same Mycenaean repertoire. The successive buildings in Q1W all served residential purposes, while at the same time they were the location for copper working. The buildings in Q4W have not produced much evidence for the activities of artisans. Even though the superimposed structures in this area were all large and probably served multiple purposes, their main function appears to have been residential. Indeed, it is possible that the large buildings included more than one house. The structures in Q4W, therefore, differ in character from those in Q1W The fact that these buildings have produced similar ranges of Mycenaean pottery suggests that this material was not subject to consumptive restrictions at Enkomi.

I have found no situations in which specific Mycenaean types appear to have been deliberately chosen for specific purposes. Such particularisation did not occur with respect to Mycenaean vases with pictorial decoration. According to Keswani, the iconography of Mycenaean chariot kraters fits in with aristocratic lifestyles and these vessels may be associated with social élites at Enkomi.64 Such a krater (cat. no. 949) occurred together with other Mycenaean vessels in a LC IIA-LC IIB building in Q4W65 A fragment of such a vessel decorated with a bull or goat (cat. no. 967) was discovered in level IIA just outside the Q1W building in an area where slag was dumped. Two chariot scenes have been reported from the LC IIC building in Q1W; one came from the copper workshop and was found together with a coarse ware stirrup jar, while another occurred in a residential area and was associated with a bead and cylinder seal. From the same period, a chariot krater has been discovered in the Q4W building in association with local coarse ware bowls. Another chariot krater was found in a pit dating to LC IIIA in the so-called Ashlar building, together with pots in LH IIIC style and implements for the making of stone tools.66

The evidence above shows that there are a few instances at Enkomi in which Mycenaean pictorial pottery has been found together with other valuable objects. However, this was not the case for most of the pictorial vessels and, in general, the contexts of such vessels are not different from that of other, non-pictorial pottery. Even though the Mycenaean pictorial finds discussed here do not represent complete vessels, it seems that vessels with pictorial decoration were not restricted to certain social

63 Dikaios 1969, 237-239; 308. 65 Dikaios 1969, 308.

64 Keswani 1989a, 562-565; 1989b, 62. See, also, Leonard 66 Dikaios 1969, 177.

1987, 264-266.

groups or to specific activities. In non-funerary situations, these vessels do not seem to have served in strategies of consumptive display.

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