The present monograph is a revised version of a dissertation written for the department of Classical Archaeology at the University of Amsterdam. The research was made possible by a generous scholarship from the UTOPA foundation. I would like to express my gratitude to the director, Mr L. Dijkman, for providing me with this opportunity and for his pleasant cooperation over the years. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) made a travel grant available which allowed me to visit many of the places mentioned in this volume. A publication grant, supplied by the same organisation, made the publication of this book possible.
This study could not have been completed without the active support of a number of friends. Over the years, Professor Joost Crouwel has read my work with alacrity and care. His detailed knowledge of a range of archaeological topics, as well as his consistent emphasis on clarity have contributed greatly to the results of my research. His academic rigour and in his enthusiasm have been a particular source of inspiration.
In the initial phases of my research, the late Vronwy Hankey helped me define the directions and the limitations of my research. My discussions with Vronwy provided an insight into the enormous complexity of the field I was about to enter. I consider myself fortunate to have been one of the many who were able to benefit from her kindness and expertise.
Dr Lucia Vagnetti kindly assisted me with the parts of this study that deal with the central Mediterranean. She also pointed me in the right direction when I was in Italy. Similarly, Professor Albert Leonard helped me with the sections on the Levant and Cyprus. I would like to express my gratitude to both scholars for sharing their expertise and for taking the time to read lengthy instalments.
A number of colleagues have discussed their work with me, shown me sites and material, and have given their views on parts of my research. In particular, I would like to thank Dr P. Attema, Dr M. Bettelli, Dr H. Catling, Dr N. Hirschfeld, Dr B. Kling, Dr G. van der Kooij, Dr S. Levi, Professor M. Marazzi, Mr G. Matteo and Professor R. Peroni.
I would also like to thank Professor N. Roymans, who agreed to include this work in the Amsterdam Archaeological Studies. In addition, the staff at Amsterdam University Press, particularly W Poelstra and J. Wagenaar, have assisted me in many ways.
Finally, my heartfelt thanks go to my parents, Corrie and Jan van Wijngaarden, and to my wife Virna. Without their enduring encouragement and ceaseless support, this book would never have been completed.
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