On site distribution of the mycenaean pottery

Even though the excavation report states that the Late Bronze Age sherds from area E were similar to those from areas A and B, no Mycenaean pottery has been reported from trench E.14 The same is true for trenches D, F, G and H. All Aegean-type pottery has been found in trenches A and B, or during the surface investigations of the large area C (Table 12.1).

According to the figures in Table 12.1, there appears to be a concentration of Mycenaean finds in area A. The difference in size between trenches A and B, however, should be acknowledged. In addition, the buildings in area B were abandoned gradually and it is possible that the occupants took useful objects with them.15 Instead, house A was destroyed early in LC IIIA.16 Nevertheless, the concentration of Mycenaean pottery in trench A is rather large and may be the result of particular groups of people using these vessels more extensively than other people at the site. The Mycenaean finds from area B and C do show that, in general, these pots were widely distributed. Most of the Mycenaean

11 To a total of seventeen entries in the catalogue, the remark "possibly Cypriot" has been added.

12 For a discussion of these shapes, see Kling 1987, 101102; 1989, 94-108.

13 Kling 1991, 183.

14 Taylor 1952, 150.

Taylor 1952, 149. Only House B I produced evidence for destruction.

Taylor (1952, 144) believed that an earlier destruction at the beginning of LC IIIA also took place in house A. However, the stratigraphical evidence for this is fragile; B. Kling (pers. comm.).

date unknown area A area B area C total undatable 1 9 1 11

LH IIIA2-LH IIIB 2 2

LH IIIB 12 2 16

LH IIIB-LH IIIC 15 2 4 19

LH IIIC early 1113

Total 1 31 15 6 53

Table 12.2

vessel type area A area B area C unknown total dinner vessels 26 10 6 1 43

storage vessels 5 1 6

not assignable 4 4

Total 31 15 6 1 53

Table 12.3

pots from areas A and B were associated with buildings and can be assigned a domestic context.17 Nine Mycenaean vessels from area B were found in pits in House B I and B III.18 In the absence of an excavated pit in area A, the significance of the relatively large number of Mycenaean finds from pits in area B cannot be assessed.

Habitation in area A may have continued after the buildings in area B had been abandoned.19 However, the chronological styles of the Mycenaean pots in all areas do not give any indication of an earlier abandonment of area B (Table 12.2). In both areas there are only a few vessels which have been assigned a LH IIIC date. In the case of area B, the LH IIIC vessels are a semi-globular cup (cat. no. 3) and a one-handled bowl (cat. no. 23). They were found together in a pit in room 3 of House B I. In area A, a carinated cup (cat. no. 8) and a ring-based krater (cat. no. 45) have been assigned a LH IIIC date. It should be remarked that House A yielded four LH IIIB-LH IIIC bowls (cat. nos. 19-22) of a type (FS 284) often considered to indicate the LC IIIA phase.20 Such vessels are absent from area B.

17 Two Mycenaean finds (cat. nos. 17, 18) were found outside House A below a floor; another find (cat. no. 42) was discovered below the lowest floor of room 2 in the same building. In area B, Mycenaean fragments (cat. nos. 50-51) were found in fill layers above Houses B II and B III. All these finds have been assigned a general settlement context. All other finds from these areas (twenty-eight for area A and ten for area B) have been assigned to a domestic context.

18 House B I possessed a pit in room 3, which produced four Mycenaean pots (cat. nos. 3, 7, 23, 28); The large pit from House B III yielded three such finds (cat. nos.

Taylor 1952, 149. B. Kling (pers. comm.) has noted that Cypriot White Slip pottery is more abundant in area B than in area A, but she is, as yet, uncertain that whether area B was indeed abandoned earlier than area A.

Sjoqvist 1940, 120-131; Astrom 1972b, 689-696; Kling 1987, 99. At least one of these deep bowls (cat. no. 20) has been found in Taylor's phase I, which shows that this vessel type cannot be used to distinguish between LC IIC and LC IIIA.

vessel type

area A

area B

area C

unknown

total

ring-based krater

1

1

cups

3

3

3

9

stemmed cup

2

3

1

6

bowls

12

4

3

19

jugs

8

8

stirrup jar

2

2

large piriform jar

1

1

jar

1

1

2

lentoid flask

1

1

fragment

4

Table 12.4

Moreover, area B produced a higher quantity of White Slip pottery, which could also signify earlier abandonment of area B. Pending more detailed publication of the stratigraphy and pottery, however, it seems best to understand both excavation areas as having been inhabited in one period during the LC IIC-LC IIIA transition.

The figures in Table 12.2 show that the earliest Mycenaean pottery have been assigned to LH IIIA2-LH IIIB. The vessels concerned include a small fragment of a shallow cup (cat. no. 2); the other vessel is a semi-globular cup (cat. no. 1) with linear decoration only. In two cases has LH IIIB pottery been found in direct association with pots that have been assigned to LH IIIC.21 Given the relatively short duration of settlement occupation at Apliki, however, this cannot be taken as evidence that Mycenaean pots were kept as antiques or heirlooms.

As Table 12.3 indicates, there is a significant preference for Mycenaean dinner vessels at Apliki, with only a few storage vessels. This predominance of dinner vessels is true for all Mycenaean stylisti-cal ceramic phases.22 It is of interest to note that almost all storage vessels have been found in area A; only one jar fragment (cat. no. 46) came from House B I. Such a concentration of storage vessels could indicate that the people associated with building A made more use of this type of vessel.

Table 12.4 shows the distribution of the actual Mycenaean vessel types at Apliki Karamallos. There are quite a number of Mycenaean jugs among the dinner vessels found at the site, showing that not all Mycenaean dinner vases are of open pot shapes. However, the great majority of Mycenaean dinner vessels are bowls, many of types that were produced in Cyprus itself.23 Such Aegean-type dinner vessels appear to have been used by many people in the town.

The figures in Table 12.5 show a predominance of linear pottery that may be somewhat exaggerated, since small sherds may have belonged to pots with more elaborate decoration. The distribution of

21 In House A, the floor of room 3W contained a LH IIIB narrow-necked jug (cat. no. 35) together with a LH IIIC carinated cup (cat. no. 8) and two LH IIIB-LH IIIC vessels (cat. nos. 22, 34). The pit of room 3 in House B I contained a LH IIIB stemmed cup (cat. no. 28) and a cylindrical cup (cat. no. 7) of the same date; in addition the pit yielded a LH IIIC one-handled bowl (cat. no. 23) and a semi-globular cup (cat. no. 3).

22 The two vessels assigned to LH IIIA2-LH IIIB are all of dinner types. Among LH IIIB vases, there are eleven dinner vessels and three storage pots. Among the Mycenaean vessels assigned to LH IIIB-LH IIIC, nineteen are dinner vessels, while there are two storage vessels. All of the five LH IIIC vases are of dinner types. There are six skyphoi or deep bowls: cat. nos. 5, 1922, 44. Nine shallow bowls have been found: cat. nos. 10-18.

decoration area A area B area C unknown total linear 19 5 4 28

patterned 6 12 9

pictorial 2 2

unknown 4 9 1 14

Table 12.5

Mycenaean pots decorated with floral and abstract patterns shows that patterned pottery was not restricted to a specific part of the site. Two Mycenaean vessels bear pictorial decoration. A fragment of a shallow bowl (cat. no. 11) preserves part of a fish, while a jar fragment (cat. no. 43) shows a bull's head. Both fragments were found in area A.

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