Mycenaean repertoire

The large quantities of Mycenaean pottery at Lipari and Broglio are paralleled only at a few other sites in the central Mediterranean. More than 340 Mycenaean sherds have been published from the island of Vivara (site no. 342),2 while the excavations at Scoglio del Tonno in Taranto (site no. 314) produced more than 150 Mycenaean finds.3 In Nuraghe Antigori (site no. 348), where Bronze Age levels have been reached in a limited number of rooms, more than forty Mycenaean finds were made, but over 100 Mycenaean sherds were found in a dump of clandestine excavators.4 Two trenches of limited extent at Termitito (site no. 316) yielded more than forty Mycenaean sherds.5 The latest Mycenaean find on Vivara dates to LH IIIA1 and the sites on this island should be grouped with Lipari in

1 Vagnetti 1982a, 18-19; 1993, 145-147; 1999. The separations between the phases ought not to be taken too strict. On the basis of the local manufacture of LH IIIB pottery, the second phase has been subdivided into an earlier stage covering LH IIIA and a later stage contemporary with LH IIIB, which should be discussed together with the LH IIIB-LH IIIC phase. The earliest of Vagnetti's phases may possibly be subdivided into earlier and later stages as well, see Marazzi 1994, 3032.

2 Panichelli & Re 1994; Re 1994. This figure con cerns the finds from excavations until 1982 only. The excavations have been resumed since 1994 and yearly campaigns have been conducted; additional Mycea-nean pottery has been found, see Marazzi 1993a; 1995; 1999.

3 Taylour (1958, 81-137) published 152 Mycenaean finds from the excavations at Scoglio del Tonno by Quagliati in 1899; see also Fisher 1988. For additional Mycenaean finds in Taranto, see Gorgoglione 1996.

4 Ferrarese-Ceruti 1979; 1986, 183-192; Ferrarese-Ceruti & Assorgia 1982.

5 De Siena & Bianco 1982, 77-83; De Siena 1986, 4348.

Vagnetti's first phase of the import of Mycenaean pottery in Italy.6 Scoglio del Tonno, instead, has produced substantial amounts of Aegean pottery in LH IIIA style and later, and this site belongs to Vagnetti's second and third phases. As in Broglio di Trebisacce, most Mycenaean finds at Termitito and Nuraghe Antigori are in LH IIIB and LH IIIC style, and these sites belong to the third period. Obviously, in each chronological phase of the Mycenaean contacts with Italy, only very few sites imported large quantities of this material.

In contrast to Lipari and Broglio, the repertoire of Aegean-type pottery from the Thapsos tombs does not include classes such as matt-painted Aegean pottery, coarse ware, local imitations and wheel-made grey ware. A large concentration of matt-painted Aegean pottery has been found at Vivara (site no. 342),7 while nine finds of such pottery have been reported from Filicudi (site no. 321).8 Smaller quantities of similar pottery have been found in Apulia at Grotta Manaccora (site no. 297),9 Giovinazzo (site no. 301),10 Punta Le Terrare (site no. 306)11 and Porto Perone-Saturo (site no. 313);12 in Sicily at Monte Grande (site no. 334)13 and in the Vallo di Diano in the interior of Campania at Sassano (site no 340).14 Different kinds of matt-painted pottery of Middle Helladic tradition circulated in the Aegean during the early stages of the Late Bronze Age.15 Its occurrence in the central Mediterranean at a number of sites indicates that the circulation of pottery in Italy was connected to contemporary exchange networks in the Aegean. Objects from different areas in the Aegean, could thus end up together at an Italian site.

Coarse ware fragments of Aegean type have been found in substantial quantities at Vivara (site no. 342).16 At Filicudi (site no. 316) such pottery constituted more than a quarter of the Mycenaean finds.17 The coarse ware vessels from these islands should be distinguished chronologically from the imported coarse ware stirrup jar found at Broglio di Trebisacce. The Aegean coarse pottery at Vivara and Filicudi compares well to that found in the wells at the Athens acropolis.18 It can be dated to the beginning of the Greek Late Bronze Age and, consequently, may be considered as one of the classes of ceramics which were in circulation alongside Aegean matt-painted pottery and decorated fine ware. Similar coarse ware pottery dating to this early period has been found at Punta le Terrare (site no. 306)19 on the Adriatic coast of Apulia and at Monte Grande (site no. 334)20 in southern Sicily.

The imported stirrup jar at Broglio di Trebisacce should be dated to LHIIIB may be compared to similar vessels, which have been distributed widely in the Aegean and the eastern Mediterranean.21 In the settlement at Torre Santa Sabina (site no. 305) numerous coarse ware jars of Aegean type have been found in association with LH IIIC material.22 Porto Perone-Saturo (site no. 313) produced two large coarse ware storage vessels in LH IIIB style,23 while a sherd at Grotta Manaccora (site no. 297) has been interpreted as belonging to a transport stirrup jar from the same period.24

6 Marazzi 1994, 18; Vagnetti 1993, 145.

8 Vagnetti 1991, 264-279.

9 Marazzi 1993b, 402-405.

10 Radina & Battisti 1987, 60; Cataldo, Radina & Wilkens 1989, 194 Fig. 11 No. 7; Vagnetti 1998, 278.

11 Franco 1996, 1564-1565; Vagnetti 1998, 285-286.

12 Lo Porto 1963, 329-330; Marazzi 1994, 25.

13 Castellana 1993-1994a, 51; 1999, 433-434.

14 Pellegrini & Piperno 1998, 45.

15 Mountjoy 1981, 70-79; Rutter 1990, 453-455; Dietz

1991, 297-303.

16 Re 1994, 227-228.

17 Vagnetti 1991, 285-286.

18 Mountjoy 1981, 59-63; Vagnetti 1991, 285; Marazzi 1994, 30-31.

19 Franco 1996, 1564-1565; Vagnetti 1998, 295-296.

20 Castellana 1993-1994a, 51.

21 Haskell 1990; Day & Haskell 1995.

22 Vagnetti 1998, 274.

23 Lo Porto 1963, 336.

24 Marazzi 1993b, 402-404.

Scientific analyses have shown that some of the coarse ware Aegean-type pottery found at Vivara was made in the region of Naples, while the fine ware vessels and most of the coarse pots from the island were imported from the Aegean.25 These results seem to suggest that some local production of Aegean-type pottery, albeit only coarse ware, occurred already in the earliest phase of Mycenaean imports into Italy. For LH IIIB-LH IIIC pottery, such local or regional production has been proven not only at Broglio di Trebisacce but also at Termitito (site no. 316), Casale Nuovo (site no. 344)26 and in Sardinia.27 At Broglio, the existence of ceramica grigia and large wheel-refined dolia has been interpreted as evidence for Aegean influence on the local pottery industry. Similar vessels in grey ware have been found at Coppa Nevigata (site no. 299)28, Torre Castelluccia (site no. 311),29 Taranto (site no. 314),30 Porto Perone-Saturo (site no. 313)31 and at Torre del Mordillo (site no. 319).32 In addition, this pottery has been discovered at sites without Mycenaean-type pottery.33 It may be of significance that ceramica grigia has not been reported from other sites with much LH IIIB-LH IIIC material such as Santa Maria di Leuca (site no. 309),34 Scalo di Furno (site no. 310), Termitito (site no. 316)35 and Antigori (site no. 348). The absence of grey ware at these sites could indicate that such pottery was locally produced at specific sites and did not circulate regionally.

The unequal distribution of grey ware in the latest phase of Mycenaean pottery in the central Mediterranean resembles similar concentrations of matt-painted and coarse ware pottery in the first phase. Such unequal distribution patterns may be the result of developments in the circulation of Mycenaean pottery which cannot be detected due to the relatively wide margins of the stratigraphical and ceramic chronology. For example, the higher quantities of Aegean matt-painted pottery and coarse ware on Vivara and Filicudi, in comparison with Lipari, may be explained by suggesting that the bulk of the imports at the latter island arrived at a later moment - when the circulation of matt-painted and coarse wares had diminished. Similarly, the absence of grey ware at a number of sites with LH IIIB-LH IIIC pottery may be caused by a relatively short-lived production of this pottery within the long LH IIIB and LH IIIC phases. However, such unequal distribution of various Aegean-type wares may also be the result of choices made by the inhabitants of different sites in various periods.

The repertoire of Mycenaean vessel types at Lipari and Broglio di Trebisacce includes both dinner and storage vessels in substantial quantities. The high number of LH I-LH II cups, particularly of Vapheio type, at Lipari show that Mycenaean dinner vessels constituted a substantial proportion of the imported repertoire from the earliest period onwards. Among the Aegean decorated fine ware found on Vivara (site no. 342) open pot shapes constitute only a small proportion.36 The same can be said for the matt-painted and coarse Aegean-type fabrics found at the same site.37 Among the LH I-IIIA1 material on Filicudi (site no. 321) open vessels are a small minority and the Mycenaean repertoire on this

25 Jones & Vagnetti 1991, 131; Jones 1994, 307.

26 Angle et al. 1993, 212-213.

27 Jones & Vagnetti 1991, 132-134.

28 Belardelli 1993, 347-348.

29 Taylour 1958, 152.

30 Gorgoglione 1996, 1574-1577.

31 Lo Porto 1963, 330-333; 1964, 195-197.

32 Arancio et al. 1995, 230.

33 Belardelli 1993, 349: Bello Luco, Santa Maria del

Castello di Castrovillari in Apulia and Amendolara in

Calabria.

34 Benzi & Graziado 1996, 1526.

35 De Siena (1986, 46) states specifically that wheel-refined dolia and ceramica grigia have not been found at Termitito, even though Aegean-type pottery was manufactured in the area of the site, see Jones & Vagnetti 1991, 132.

36 Panichelli & Re 1994, 212-214.

island seems to be comparable to that on Vivara.38 This is also the case for the Sicilian site of Monte Grande (site no. 335).39 At the sites with smaller quantities of early Mycenaean finds, dinner vessels dating to this period have not been found at Capo Piccolo (site no. 320) in Calabria,40 at Madre Chiesa di Gaffa (site no. 336) in Sicily41 or at the two sites on Salina (sites no. 322-323).42 The earliest Mycenaean finds at Punta le Terrare (site no. 306) date to LH II-LH IIIA1 and include several storage jars, whereas a LH II-LH IIIA1 cup has also been reported.43 Finally, there are a few sites where open vessels constitute the only early Mycenaean finds, such as Giovinazzo (site no. 302)44 and Porto-Perone-Saturo (site no. 313).45 Clearly, there is a variation among the sites in Italy with Mycenaean finds from the first chronological phase in the extent to which open drinking vessels were imported.

At Thapsos, the majority of the Mycenaean vessels is from closed pot shapes, whereas at Lipari most of the finds dating from LH IIIA2 to LH IIIB-LH IIIC are of open pot shapes. The site in the central Mediterranean with the widest variety of contemporary Mycenaean finds is Scoglio del Tonno at Taranto (site no. 314), where more than 100 Mycenaean finds dating from LH IIIA2 until LH IIIB-LH IIIC have been made.46 Among these finds there is a slight majority of storage vessels in comparison to dinner vessels. The relative proportions of these two Mycenaean ceramic functional classes appear to have changed over time, as the frequency of storage vessels is highest among LH IIIA finds, while LH IIIB dinner vessels occur more often than contemporary storage vessels. Among the storage vessels at Scoglio del Tonno, the large piriform jar (FS 34-36) occurs most often, while there are also many stirrup jars. Among the dinner vessels, the kylix is most common, but there are also a fair number of kraters. The repertoire of Mycenaean pot shapes at Porto Perone-Saturo (site no. 313) is very similar to that found at Scoglio del Tonno, even though LH IIIA finds are absent.47 The LH IIIA2-LH IIIB finds at the Milazzese levels at Panarea are comparable to those at Lipari.48 At sites in the central Mediterranean with smaller quantities of Mycenaean pottery, both dinner and storage vessels occur.

Possibly, the relatively high proportion of Mycenaean storage vessels at Thapsos is due to the funerary context in which the finds at that site have been made. At other cemeteries in Sicily contemporary to Thapsos, mainly storage vessels have been found as well.49 It is of interest to note, however, that the contemporary settlement at Cannatello (site no. 333) in southern Sicily also appears to have had a preference for closed Mycenaean pot shapes.50 The only funerary context in Apulia which dates to the same period - grave no. 12 in the tumulus at Torre Santa Sabina (site no. 305) - yielded one LH IIIA2 cup and a LH IIIA2-LH IIIB alabastron.51 Apparently, the inhabitants of the sites in Sicily had a preference for Mycenaean storage vessels during the second phase of Aegean connections with Italy, while in other regions larger quantities of Mycenaean dinner vessels were imported. To a larger extent than in the LH I-LH II phase, which showed significant local differences, regional patterns are visible in the distribution of Mycenaean pottery in Italy.

At Broglio di Trebisacce, both Mycenaean dinner and storage vessels have been found in substantial quantities. Among the LH IIIB-LH IIIC pottery from Scoglio del Tonno (site no. 314), dinner vessels predominate, but storage vessels dating to LH IIIC are numerous as well. In particular, a variety of LH

38 Vagnetti 1991, 284 diagram 2.

39 Castellana 1999, 433-438.

40 Vagnetti 1987, 37-42.

41 Castellana 1993-1994a, 49.

42 Bernabo-Brea & Cavalier 1968, 142-143, 166-167.

43 Bocuccia 1998, 176; Vagnetti 1998, 284-285.

44 Lo Porto 1967, 162.

45 Lo Porto 1963, 333-334.

46 Taylour 1958, 81-137; Fisher 1988.

47 Lo Porto 1963, 333-337; 1964, 197-198.

48 Taylour 1958, 44-47.

49 See chapter 16.

50 De Miro 1996, 998-999.

51 Lo Porto 1993, 10-11.

IIIC amphorae have been found at this site, of types (FS 58-70) which also occur at Broglio di Trebisacce. At Porto Perone-Saturo (site no. 299), where substantial amounts of Mycenaean pottery from this later period have also been found, dinner vessels are the most frequent.52 At the site of Coppa Nevigata (site no. 299), where most of the Mycenaean pottery appears to be of LH IIIC date, closed vessels are more numerous, even though there is a fair proportion of open vessels.53 Among the Mycenaean finds from the settlement at Torre Santa Sabina (site no. 305), which date to an early phase of LH IIIC, dinner vessels appear to be more frequent, but storage jars have been found as well.54 Most of the Mycenaean finds at Punta Meliso di Leuca (site no. 309) belong to an advanced stage of LH IIIC.55 Among the earlier finds, an amphora could be of LH IIIB-LH IIIC date. From Torre Castelluccia (site no. 312), a variety of drinking vessels dating to LH IIIB-LH IIIC have been reported.56 At Termitito, where a regional production of Mycenaean pottery similar to that at Broglio di Trebisacce has been attested, dinner vessels seem to be more numerous than storage pots.57 In Latium, storage vessels appear to have been the most frequent,58 which may also have been the case at Antigori (site no. 348) on Sardinia.59

From this overview it is clear that the Mycenaean ceramic repertoire in the beginning of the third phase of Aegean contacts with Italy was relatively homogeneous in comparison with the earlier periods. Differences in the relative proportions of storage and dinner vessels occur, but both classes have been found in reasonable numbers in southern Italy, Sicily and in the Tyrrhenian region; Latium and Sardinia show a distinctive preference for storage vessels.

Mycenaean vessels which can be interpreted as of ceremonial types are almost absent in the central Mediterranean. Only in room A at the Nuraghe Antigori (site no. 348) has a LH IIIB conical rhyton been discovered.60 Three Mycenaean terra-cotta figurines have been found in the central Mediterranean: one at Lipari and two more female Psi-type figurines were discovered at Scoglio del Tonno (site no. 314).61 Apparently, these kind of specialised ceramics occurred only at sites with abundant Mycenaean imports.

Mycenaean pottery with pictorial decoration should also be considered to be of a specialised nature. Such decoration has not been found on the Aegean pots from Lipari, Thapsos and Broglio. Fish are visible on two sherds from Scoglio del Tonno (site no. 300);62 another fragment from Scoglio probably shows the hind legs of a horse.63 A concentration of Mycenaean pictorial pottery has been found at Termitito (site no. 316).64 A fragment of a LH IIIB krater from this site depicts a goat, while another fragment from an open vessel with light-on-dark decoration may show a similar animal. In addition, representations of horses, a bird and an octopus have also been found. Quite unique is the stirrup jar, which is depicted on a sherd from this site.65 The Mycenaean pictorial pottery at Termitito

52 Lo Porto 1963, 337-339; 1964, 198-200.

53 Belardelli 1993, 347-348.

54 Vagnetti 1998, 274.

55 Benzi & Graziado 1996, 1524.

56 Taylour 1958, 147-148.

57 De Siena & Bianco 1982, 75-76; De Siena 1986, 45.

58 For Casale Nuovo (site no. 344), see Angle & Zarattini 1987, 252; Angle et al. 1993, 201. For Luni sul Mignone (site no. 346), see Ă–stenberg 1967, 128.

59 Ferrarese-Ceruti & Assorgia 1982, 172-176; Ferrarese-

Ceruti 1986, 184-187.

60 Ferrarese-Ceruti & Assorgia 1982, 172-173: no. 5.

61 Taylour 1958, 115.

64 De Siena & Bianco 1982, tav. XXII-XXIII; De Siena 1986, 51 figs. 5-6.

65 At Cannatello (site no. 289) a large stirrup jar with stylised octopi has been discovered, see De Miro 1997, 998. An octopus design may also be present on a kylix sherd at Borg en Nadur (site no. 283) on Malta, see Buchholz 1974, 328-329.

shows that preferences existed with regard to the Aegean-type ceramics that were imported or manufactured. The high variation among sites in the extent to which Mycenaean dinner vessels dating to an early period have been found show that preferences were exerted already in the first phase of Mycenaean contacts with Italy.

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