Info

5 85 29

143 1

Total

Table 10.5

site area

fragments

dinner

ritual

storage

figurines

total

unknown

21

57

1

34

1

114

Q1E/Q2E

4

1

6

11

Q1W

28

126

5

36

195

Q1W-west

3

3

Q2W

8

1

4

13

Q2W/Q2E

1

1

Q3E

1

1

Q3W

62

43

105

Q3W/Q4W

2

17

19

Q4E

4

34

1

23

62

Q4E/Q5E

1

3

4

Q4W

35

201

2

83

2

323

Q5E

65

65

1

79

210

Q5W

3

109

1

79

192

Q6W

27

32

59

Q7W

1

50

61

112

Q8W

6

5

11

Q8E

1

1

Q9E

8

2

1

11

Q9E/Q10E

3

2

5

Q9W

2

5

7

Q11E

2

2

eastern scarp

4

1

6

10

Total

159

773

14

520

6

Table 10.6

are widely distributed at Enkomi, which indicates that neither of these types were spatially restricted. Three important areas, Q5E, Q7W and Q10W, reveal a dominance of storage vessels, which is in contrast with the general pattern of the site.44 None of these precincts have been fully published, and kind, see Table I in the tables section of this book. When a distinction is made between open and closed vessels — with jugs assigned to the latter category — there is a majority of 705 open vessels at Enkomi, against 600 closed vessels and 142 fragments. In the case of Q5E it needs to be remarked that the number of fragments published from this part of the city, almost all found in Fr. T. 1336 which was published in detail by Johnstone (1971), is large enough to turn the relative proportions of these functional classes around.

date fragments dinner ritual storage

IIB-IIIA1 14 2G

IIIA2 14 193 6 12G

IIIA2-IIIB 11 1lG 3 1l4

IIIB 4l 353 5 165

IIIB-IIIC 3 22 1

undatable B4 1B 39

Total 159 llG 14 519

Table 10.7

it is impossible to say at present whether this inconsistency indicates that in these areas Mycenaean storage vessels were particularly desired.

Of the four earliest Mycenaean pots at Enkomi, the majority belong to the class of dinner vessels, as is visible in Table 10.7. A predominance of Mycenaean dinner vessels can also be observed for Mycenaean vessels from LH IIIA2 onwards. Only among Mycenaean vessels in LH IIB-LH IIIA1 style do most belong to the storage category. However, if pots in LH IIIA1 style are considered separately, a balance is visible in the numbers of storage and dinner vessels.45 This suggests that in this period, during which an increase is visible in the number of Mycenaean imports at Enkomi, a larger proportion of dinner vessels began to arrive at the site. This trend is emphasised by the sharp increase in Mycenaean imports at the beginning of LH IIIA2 and continued into the LH IIIB period.

The category of Mycenaean ritual vessels consists of six conical rhyta (cat. nos. 1, 75, 162, 194, 204, 1064), three bull's head rhyta (cat nos. 49, 1046, 1323), two ostrich egg rhyta (cat nos. 911, 1378), one fragment of a bird which may have been attached to an ostrich-egg rhyton (cat. no. 1044) and a fragment of a rhyton of indeterminable shape (cat. no. 1150). Even though this class of pottery is relatively scarce in comparison with the total number of Mycenaean vessels at Enkomi, it is of interest that nowhere on Cyprus so many of these vases have been found together.46 The same may be said for figurines.47 Moreover, it should be noted that both classes of pottery are widely distributed and do not seem to have been restricted in a spatial sense.

The contextual distribution of the four different Mycenaean ceramic categories is presented in Table 10.8. In all three types of context distinguished here, dinner vessels are more abundant than storage vessels. This phenomenon, however, is much less marked in funerary contexts than in houses or settlement levels in general. There does not seem to have been any restriction of specific Mycenaean functional categories to particular types of contexts (Table 10.9). The quantities of pots found in funerary contexts is for almost every Mycenaean vessel type far greater than the number of settlement finds. Only bowls are found more often in settlement levels, while the numbers are almost

45 Of the 25 LH IIIA1 pots, twelve are dinner vessels, thirteen storage pots.

46 Apart from Enkomi, Astrom (1972b, 354) mentions Kourion-Bamboula (site no. 122), Myrtou- Pigadhes (site no. 99) and Sinda (site no. 54) as sites with Mycenaean conical rhyta. Of these, only from Myrtou-Pigadhes he reports more than one specimen, namely two. Ostrich-egg and animal-shaped rhyta have been reported from Enkomi only. A conical rhyton has also been discovered at Kition (site no. 63), see Karageorghis 1985a, 89: no. 3442. Rhyta have also been found at Hala Sultan Tekke (site no. 65), see Öbrink 1983, 25: no. 51; Niklasson-Sönnerby 1989, 78 Fig. 143 (no. F6517), 79 Fig. 147 (F6521).

context

fragments

dinner

ritual

storage

figurines

total

unknown

17

29

13

1

59

Funerary

69

466

9

426

2

954

Domestic

40

176

1

53

1

273

Settlement

33

102

2

28

2

167

Total 159 773 12 520 6 1453

Total 159 773 12 520 6 1453

Table 10.8

shape

unknown

funerary

domestic

pits

settlement

total

kraters

18

131

38

12

17

216

cups

3

178

56

2

19

258

bowls

5

83

55

9

34

186

stemmed cups/bowls

1

18

13

1

2

35

jugs

2

57

14

2

3

78

rhyta

8

2

1

1

12

composite vessel

1

1

stirrup jars

7

180

24

2

9

222

piriform jars

5

165

19

1

13

203

other jars

4

4

alabastra

1

51

4

2

58

flasks

25

6

1

32

fragment

17

68

41

1

33

equal for stemmed cups and bowls. In spite of the predominance of tomb finds for all Mycenaean vessel types, it is clear that none of the individual vessel types was restricted to funerary use. Even amphoroid kraters, which have often been assigned funerary functions, occurred outside tombs in substantial numbers.48 Similar conclusions may be drawn for the class of ritual vessels and for figu-

rines.49

47 L. Astrom (1972, 511-512) lists Alambra (site no. 71), Maroni (site no. 116), Sinda (site no. 54) and Hala Sultan Tekke (site no. 65) as find spots of Mycenaean terra-cotta figurines. Only Maroni and Alambra have produced more than one figurine, namely two. In Idalion (site no. 72), one Mycenaean female figurine has also been found, see Herscher 1998, 333. At Kition (site no. 63), a concentration of Mycenaean figurines has been found in the temple area, see Karageorghis 1985a, 98-99, 105, 170. Other figurines at this site came from the tombs, see Karageorghis 1974, 33, 44.

48 See, for example, Dikaios 1969, 249; Keswani 1989b, 58-69, who state that amphoroid kraters have specific funerary functions. Out of a total of 125 amphoroid kraters at Enkomi, thirty-six (30.4 %) have been found in settlement levels; seventy-eight (62.4 %) were discovered in tombs.

49 Five conical rhyta (cat. nos. 1, 75, 162, 194, 204) have been found in a tomb, while one (cat. no. 1064) occurred in a domestic context. One bull's head rhyton (cat. no. 49) was discovered in a tomb, while two others (cat. nos. 1046, 1323) occurred in settlement contexts. Ostrich egg rhyta occurred only in funerary deposits (cat. nos. 911, 1323). However, a clay fragment of a bird (cat. no. 1044) probably belonged to a similar vessel and was found in a settlement context. Three figurines came from settlement contexts, while two were discovered in a tomb.

site area

d.c.w.

plain

linear

patterned

pictorial

plastic

unknown

unknown

2

16

56

26

13

Q1E/Q2E

9

1

1

Q1W

8

59

103

10

3

12

Q1W-west

1

2

Q2W

1

11

1

Q3E

1

Q3W

1

32

55

16

1

Q3W/Q4W

1

12

1

5

Q4E

8

29

16

9

Q4E/Q5E

2

1

1

Q4W

9

2

136

133

30

1

10

Q5E

65

101

3

1

40

Q5W

4

62

83

26

17

Q6W

16

33

3

7

Q7W

35

59

8

10

Q8W

1

8

2

Q9E

8

2

Q9E/Q10E

2

3

Q9W

1

2

2

2

Q11E

1

1

eastern scarp

1

4

3

3

Total 23 3 439 711 151 6 133

Total 23 3 439 711 151 6 133

Table 10.10

The last subdivision of Mycenaean pottery of which the spatial and contextual distribution will be investigated is that according to type of ware and decoration (Table 10.10).50 A substantial number of coarse ware vessels have been found at Enkomi, in all cases large stirrup jars, possibly derived from Crete. The fact that these vessels have been found in both areas which have been fully published, as well as in Q5W, suggests that the use of these vessels at Enkomi was not restricted in a spatial sense. A limited quantity of plain ware vessels has been found, in all cases cups (cat. nos. 389, 1296, 1318). The great majority of Mycenaean vessels at Enkomi, however, has a decoration of abstract and floral pat-terns.51 Such a predominance of vessels with patterned decoration can be established for all city precincts, with the exception of Q4W, where a larger amount of linear decorated vessels has been found. Q4W has been fully published and the fragmentary nature of much of the ceramic material found in habitation levels is without doubt partially the cause of this high frequency of linear finds. However, Q1W has also been fully published but a high proportion of Mycenaean linear finds cannot be observed. It is possible that Mycenaean vessels with linear decoration were used more often than elsewhere in Q4W

Only a few vessels with plastic decoration have been found at Enkomi. Three of these are bull's head rhyta (cat. no. 49, 1046, 1323), while there are two ostrich egg rhyta to which a bird has been

50 In Table 10.10, the term 'unknown' includes finds of which the decoration is worn off, small, monochrome pieces of, for example, a foot or rim; and finds of which the decoration is not known to me, but which were clearly decorated. The abbreviation d.c.w refers to decorated coarse ware.

Considering the number of small fragments found in the settlement excavations, it is likely that many of the Mycenaean linear finds belonged to pots with patterned or pictorial decoration.

decoration

unknown

funerary

domestic

settlement

total

unknown

9

100

8

16

133

d.c.w.

2

5

9

7

23

plain

1

2

3

linear

9

261

103

66

439

patterned

26

494

126

65

711

pictorial

13

106

22

10

151

plastic

3

3

6

Total

59

970

270

167

1466

Table 10.11

decoration

unknown

funerary

domestic

settlement

total

hanging loops

2

2

various animals

5

36

4

1

46

bulls

1

24

6

2

33

men

7

7

chariot scene

5

39

12

6

62

ship scene

1

1

Total

13

107

22

9

Table 10.12

attached (cat. nos. 911, 1378), and a fragment probably from a similar vessel (cat. no. 1044). Even though their number is fairly small, plastically decorated vessels do not seem to have been concentrated in particular parts of the city.

Vessels with pictorial decoration occur in most parts of the site. However, in Q5E, which figures prominently in terms of the presence Mycenaean pottery in general, pictorial vessels are absent, while Q1W, has produced relatively small quantities of it. In contrast, relatively a large number of Mycenaean pictorial vessels have been found in Q3W and Q5W. The spatial distribution of Mycenaean vessels with pictorial decoration, therefore, appears to differ from that of Mycenaean pottery in general. Even though pictorial pottery does not seem to have been spatially restricted, it may not have been used to the same extent everywhere in the city.

The unequal spatial distribution of Mycenaean pictorial pottery does not seem to be related to its use in tombs. Table 10. 11 shows that the proportion of Mycenaean pictorial pottery in tombs (70.1 %) is a little bit higher than that of Mycenaean pottery in general (66.1 %). However, this difference can be explained by the fact that tombs produce more complete vessels. The contextual distribution of different Mycenaean pictorial motifs is presented in Table 10.12.

Chariot scenes are the most frequent motif on the Mycenaean pictorial pottery at Enkomi, while bulls and various other animals also occur in substantial quantities.52 Most vessels in each of these categories have been found in tombs, but all of them occur in settlement levels as well, which suggests that none of these motifs had a specifically funerary connotation. Obviously, neither Mycenaean pictorial pottery as a general class, nor specific figurative motifs can be assigned exclusively funerary functions, as has been assumed.53 Decorated coarse ware stirrup jars have also been found in tombs

52 Apart from bulls, other creatures represented among stags, deer, fish, goats, lions, octopi and sphinxes.

the Mycenaean pictorial pottery at Enkomi are: birds, 53 For example, Dikaios 1969, 249; Keswani 1989b, 58-69.

Fig. 10.2 Enkomi: Mycenaean pottery in the so-called Fortress

(Table 10.11), which may be somewhat surprising in view of their function as transport jars. Their presence in funerary contexts suggests that the use of this type of pottery was not purely functional, but had a symbolical dimension as well.

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