Funerary evidence

The majority of the Mycenaean pots which are known to have been found in Cyprus probably derive from tombs, which have been subject to pillaging from ancient until modern times. Most sites in Cyprus where Mycenaean pottery has been found are tomb sites.173 At Enkomi, it is clear that the inclusion of Mycenaean pots in tombs was a widespread phenomenon. At Kition (site no. 63), tombs

167 Catling 1957, 42 no. 187. 172 Webb & Frankel 1994, 19; Knapp 1996a, 20-22; 1997,

168 Astrom 1972b, 354: no. 199k; L. Astrom 1972, 512. 62

169 L. Astrom 1972, 512 173 Forty-three Cypriot sites in Catalogue I have produced

170 Herscher 1998, 333. only tombs, while at twenty-six sites there were funer-

171 Steel 1998, 289-292; ary as well as settlement remains. Fifteen sites were set-

have been discovered in area I only.174 The inventory of tombs 4/5 included a wide variety of Cypriot pottery, together with a Red Lustrous bottle, stone vessels and a few small objects of ivory, glass paste and faience. The Aegean pottery, which constituted almost forty percent of the total number of objects which came from these tombs, comprised a wide repertoire of pot shapes, among which piri-form jars, stirrup jars and jugs were frequent.175 Particularly abundant, however, were Mycenaean-type shallow bowls which were probably produced on the island itself. The lower burial of tomb 9 at Kition, which dated to LC IIC, also produced some Mycenaean stirrup jars, as well as a rather large number of kylikes and shallow bowls. In addition, alabaster, glass and faience vases were found, along with golden beads and a ring, ivory and stone objects. An equally wealthy inventory, including a variety of golden and bronze jewellery as well as metal vessels and weapons, was associated with the upper burial of tomb 9, which can be dated to the period of the LC IIC-LC III transition. The Mycenaean repertoire of this tomb was limited, however, consisting mainly of a large number of shallow bowls. The three tombs at Kition were situated close together and it is possible that they represent a specific group in the population of that town. Nevertheless, the repertoire of Mycenaean pots in these tombs is comparable to the pots found in the funerary cellars at Enkomi. This suggests that at Kition the practice of including Mycenaean pottery in funerary ceremonies was widespread.

A far larger number of tombs have been excavated at Hala Sultan Tekke (site no. 65), a site that has been subject to various archaeological expeditions in the 19th and 20th centuries.176 As a result, the inventories of many tombs are only partially known. The reinvestigation of objects from the old excavations have made clear that Mycenaean pottery was included in the majority of tombs.177 This picture is confirmed by the two tombs that were excavated in 1968, which are comparable to the tombs at Enkomi and Kition in terms of the variety of their funerary inventories and the repertoire of Mycenaean pots.178 In addition, four tombs, all of which were pillaged, have been investigated in area 6 at Hala Sultan Tekke; these also produced substantial quantities of Mycenaean pottery.179 It would seem that the Mycenaean pottery from funerary contexts at Hala Sultan Tekke presents a similar picture to that at Enkomi. The same can be said for Kourion-Bamboula (site no. 122), where the majority of LC II tombs produced Mycenaean pots.180

A large Late Bronze Age cemetery was excavated in 1897 at Maroni (sites nos. 116, 117).181 Objects from twenty-eight graves have recently been retrieved, which has made clear that most tombs contained Mycenaean pottery. A few tombs seem to have produced a larger quantity of Mycenaean vessels than others, as well as a somewhat wider variety of vessel types.182 From the letters written by the excavators, it is certain that there were many more tombs, which were considered "not productive", i.e. they contained "only local wares or fragmentary pieces of pottery."183 A recent survey of the cemetery has produced evidence for fourteen Late Cypriot tombs, most of which contained Mycenaean sherds.184 This is an indication that small amounts of Aegean pottery may have been pre-

tlements only.

174 Karageorghis 1974, 16-35.

175 Karageorghis 1974, 36-87.

176 Bailey (1976) reports on twenty-one tombs, but it is certain that more have been investigated: Crowfoot opened up some fifty tombs in 1898, but considered only eleven worth commenting upon, see Astrom 1986b, 7-8.

177 Bailey 1976.

178 Karageorghis 1976.

179 Astrom 1983.

180 Benson 1972, 10-35.

181 Johnson 1980, 5-6; Cadogan 1992.

182 See Johnson 1980, 14-15.

183 Letter by H.B. Walters, 3 December 1897, see Manning 1998, 43.

184 Manning & Monks 1998, 308-347.

sent in many tombs at Maroni, which makes it unlikely that the presence of Mycenaean pots in tombs is indicative of élite status, as has recently been stated by S. Manning and L. Steel.185 It may be that large quantities of Mycenaean pots, together with other prestige goods, were reserved for élite groups.

At Kalavasos-Ayios Dhimitrios (site no. 115), several graves yielded Mycenaean vases, but only a limited number contained substantial quantities and a wide variety of drinking vessels.186 It seems, then, that at Kalavasos a restricted group distinguished itself by including larger quantities and a wider variety of Mycenaean pottery in their tombs, which may also have been the case at Maroni. This pattern is much more marked for Kalavasos than for Enkomi, where Mycenaean drinking vessels were relatively widely distributed in the tombs. Other coastal centres appear to confirm the picture of Enkomi. It seems logical to assume that the variation in the role of Mycenaean pots in the funerary rituals between Enkomi, Kition, Hala Sultan Tekke and Kourion on the one hand and Kalavasos and Maroni on the other is related to the differences in socio-political organisation that have been commented upon before.

From many other sites tombs with Myceanean pottery have been reported. In the eastern part of the island, Ayios Iakovos-Melia (site no. 51) produced three tombs of LC II date, each containing a variety of Mycenaean storage vessels.187 At the site of Angastina (site no. 77) five tombs were investigated, of which only one has been published. In addition to a wide variety of Cypriot pottery and a glass cylinder seal, this tomb yielded several Mycenaean storage vessels and one shallow bowl.188 Two LC tombs have been discovered at Nicosia-Ayia Pareskevi (site no. 75), of which only tomb 6 contained Mycenaean pots, mostly storage vessels.189 The same was also the case for a tomb near the locality of Kafkallia in the area of Idalion (site no. 72).190 In the hinterland of Larnaca, several sites have yielded Late Bronze Age tombs. At Laxia tou Riou (site no. 64) four tombs were discovered, from which three Mycenaean piriform jars and one stirrup jar have been reported.191 From Aradhippou (site no. 62) a Mycenaean deep krater with pictorial decoration, as well as a ring-based krater showing a hunting scene have been reported, presumably from one or more tombs.192 From a tomb at Klavdhia (site no. 67) came a large jug with cut-away neck that can be dated to LH IIB-LH IIIA1.193 A range of later Mycenaean vessels from various tombs have also been reported from this site, among which were piriform jars, stirrup jars, flasks, cups and kraters.194 Tombs excavated in the nineteenth century at Dromoloxia-Trypes (site no. 66), not more than two kilometres from Hala Sultan Tekke, produced Mycenaean stirrup jars, piriform jars and a jug.195 A tomb excavated in the same area during a rescue excavation in 1977 yielded Mycenaean jugs, piriform jars and shallow bowls, in addition to kraters in the 'Rude' or 'Pastoral' style.196 To the east along the south coast of the island, at Pyla- Verghi (site no. 61), a looted tomb was investigated and produced a wide variety of Mycenaean vessels, including at least seven kraters.197

The site of Kalavasos-Mangia (site no. 115), situated along the south coast in the vicinity of Ayios Dhimitrios, was a cemetery with at least six Late Bronze Age tombs. Four of these contained

185 Manning 1998, 42-47; Steel 1999b.

186 South & Russell 1989, 44, 55; 1993, 306; South 1997, 163-171; Steel 1998.

187 Sjöqvist 1934, 325-333, 345-354. The only pots that can be classified as dinner vessels are two globular jugs.

188 Karageorghis 1964, 4-16.

189 Kromholz 1971, 246-247.

190 Overbeck & Swiney 1972, 20-21

191 Myres 1897, 148-152.

192 Pottier 1907, 234-236.

193 Walters 1912, 113: no. C580; Stubbings 1951, 29.

194 Astrom (1972b, 289-384) lists twenty-nine Mycenaean vases from this site.

195 Witzel 1979, 195-196.

196 Lubsen Admiraal 1982, 51.

197 Dikaios 1971, 914.

Mycenaean pottery, mainly of the storage type, but a shallow bowl decorated with bull protomes was also discovered.198 Unfortunately, very little is known of the other cemeteries along the southern and south-western coast. In the north-west of the island, tomb II at Toumba tou Skourou (site no. 105) yielded a LM IIIA1 jug in addition to two LH IIIA2 storage vessels.199 At Myrtou-Stephania (site no. 100), a total of fourteen tombs have been excavated, mostly belonging to the MC III-LC I period.200 The few tombs which could be assigned to LC II yielded only a few Mycenaean vessels. At Akhera (site no. 92) in the Troodos mountains, two tombs have been assigned a LC IIC date, each of which contained many Mycenaean storage vessels and a few small dinner vessels.201 The nearby site of Politiko (site no. 89) produced a tomb with a similar Mycenaean inventory, even though the vessels are somewhat earlier than at Akhera.202

From the overview presented above, it is clear that the practice of including Mycenaean pots in tombs was widely known in all parts of the island. In agreement with the general distribution pattern, however, the quantities of Mycenaean pottery in tombs at secondary and tertiary sites are far lower than in tombs at the urban coastal centres. Moreover, it should be noted that the presence of Mycenaean dinner vessels in graves at the lower order sites is limited. Even though jugs or small drinking vessels have been reported in a few cases, storage vessels predominate and large Mycenaean kraters, even though they do occur, are less frequent. The importance of Mycenaean dinner vessels in strategies of funerary display in the coastal centres apparently resulted in restricted access to similar vessels at inland sites.203 In order to distinguish themselves in their funerary ritual, regional élite groups in the island's interior made use of small quantities of modest Aegean drinking vessels and storage pots. An exception to this pattern may be seen in the hinterland of Larnaca, where tombs at Aradhippou, Klavdhia and Dromolaxia did produce a wide variety of Mycenaean pots, among which were a great many kraters. This may indicate that smaller sites in the vicinity of large coastal centres had wider access to ceramic imports than sites situated further away.

It is possible that the widespread occurrence of Mycenaean pots in tombs and the restricted range of shapes in funerary contexts at inland sites are not indicative of all periods during which this type of pottery was imported. At Enkomi, the earliest Mycenaean pots in the tombs belonged to the LH IIA stylistical phase, while several LH IIB-LH IIIA1 pots also were found in funerary contexts. At Maroni (sites nos. 116, 117) a LH IIA alabastron was found in a tomb, and several tombs yielded pots in LH IIB-LH IIIA1 styles.204 The largest concentration of Aegean pottery of an early date has been found in Toumba tou Skourou (site no. 105), where nine LM I dinner vessels and a so-called 'flower pot' were found in tomb I.205 In addition, two sherds in similar ceramic styles were found in tomb II, while another fragment came from tomb III. Three tombs at Ayia Irini-Palaekastro (site no. 103) produced Minoan or Mycenaean semi-globular cups which also date to the very beginning of the Aegean contacts with Cyprus. From these finds, it is clear that Aegean vessels were included in Cypriot funerary rituals from an early period onwards. However, a difference is visible between Enkomi and Maroni on the one hand, where exclusively Mycenaean storage vessels were deposited in tombs, and Toumba tou

198 Todd 1988, 203-208.

199 Vermeule & Wolsky 1990, 383-385.

200 Hennessy 1963, 2-10, 31.

201 Karageorghis 1965a, 111-121.

202 Karageorghis 1965b, 20-23.

203 In this case it is significant that at Pyla- Verghi (site no.

61) many Mycenaean kraters were found. The coastal location, as well as the lay-out of nearby Pyla-Kokkinokremos (site no. 62) and the extensive other necropoleis in the area, are indicative of a coastal centre.

204 Johnson 1980, 17-18, 27-28; Manning & Monks 1998, 321.

205 Vermeule & Wolsky 1990, 381-383.

Skourou and Ayia Irini on the other hand, where only Aegean dinner vessels were deposited. Obviously, in the very beginning of the presence of Myceanean pots in Cyprus, their suitability to serve in funerary ceremonies was regarded differently in different areas.

LH IIB-LH IIIA1 vessels have been found in tombs at a number of sites in Cyprus.206 Most of these sites are situated in the vicinity of the coast, but Milia (site no. 55) and Katydhata (site no. 107) are inland sites. The relatively wide distribution of LH IIB-LH IIIA1 vessels in Cypriot tombs shows that the practice of putting Mycenaean pots in tombs spread in the island during the earlier stages of LC II. By LC IIC, the role of Mycenaean vessels in funerary ceremonies varied not according to geography but the site's place in regional distribution networks.

206 In addition to Enkomi and Maroni, such pottery has been found in tombs at Milia (site no. 55), Hala Sultan Tekke (site no. 65), Arpera (site no. 68), Kalavasos-

Ayios Dhimitrios (site no. 114), Toumba tou Skourou (site no. 105) and Katydhata (site no. 107).

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