Preface

This volume has been too long in the making. Aside from my own distractions coming from those wanting Catawba information from me, the task of examining issues connected to Catawba history and culture is enormous. The documentation is vast and scattered. The tradition is of great antiquity and certainly deserved the attention. Also, although the Catawba survived the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the most critical period in their history, they slipped into obscurity. As a result, it took far too long for the American academic community to discover this artistically lonely pottery-making community. In 1884, the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology sent Edward Palmer, a field anthropologist, to the reservation. As a result, the Smithsonian's Catawba collection dates from Palmer's field trip. It is, therefore, the oldest in the United States. George P. Merrell, John R. Swanson, and James Mooney, to name the major contributors, made additions to the collection. Then, in 1888, a South Carolina writer and would-be ethnologist, MacDonald Furman, took an interest in the Catawba and wrote about them in the local press. He alone sparked interest in South Carolina. As a result of his efforts, the University of South Carolina collection was begun early in the twentieth century. Major additions have been made in recent years by the University's McKissick Museum.

Palmer and Furman were followed by M. R. Harrington (1908), who produced the first published examination of the Catawba tradition. V. Fewkes came next in 1944 with his longer study. Since 1944 no attempts have been made to discuss the Catawba tradition in a comprehensive way. It is, however, impossible to discuss the Catawba for very long and not touch upon the pottery made by the Indians. Nearly every scholar who has done any work on the Catawba has made some effort to bring the tradition into focus. In spite of over a century of scholarly attention, no comprehensive study of the Catawba tradition has ever been written from the Catawba perspective. Catawba Indian Pottery: The Survival of a Folk Tradition hopefully fills this need. At long last the Catawba themselves have a chance to speak at length about their ancestral tradition. What they have to say will help scholars move closer to a full recognition of the historical importance of the Catawba contribution. The world beyond the Catawba has much to gain as this small Nation is recognized for the cultural, artistic, and technological bridge it offers between our times and the little understood prehistory of the region.

The first thank you for standing by me in the making of this study goes to my longtime friend Brent L. Kendrick. He accompanied me on my first visits to the Catawba Reservation. Although his professional desires took him in the direction of American Literature, he never left off encouraging me during my long Catawba saga. He has been my editor and has always believed in my work among the Catawba. Over the years he has believed in the value of my study, Catawba Indian Pottery: The Survival of a Folk Tradition. He has always told me that, though my approach to Catawba studies came with its difficulties, my approach of dealing directly with my primary source was the key to my success. He was right, and I thank him.

Those Catawba Indians and individuals allied to the Nation who have always stood by me as mentors include: Deborah Harris Crisco, Jayne Marks Harris, William Harris, Judy Canty Martin, Billie Anne Canty McKellar, Steve McKellar, Della Harris Oxendine, Earl Robbins, Viola Harris Robbins, E. Fred Sanders, Marcus Sanders, Frances Canty Wade, and Cynthia Walsh. I owe them many thanks for years of friendship and support. Although they passed away long ago, this study is a dream come true for Georgia Harris and Doris Blue.

A huge number of Catawba have supported my work over the years and these include: Cindy Allen (potter); Hazel (Foxx) Ayers (potter); Sara Lee Harris Sanders Ayers (master potter); Richard Bailey (Sanders family); Helen Canty Beck (master potter, major history informant); Lula Blue Beck (master potter, major history informant); Major Beck (fiddler, major history informant); Roderick Beck (potters' support network); Ronnie Beck (potter, dancer); Sallie Brown Beck (master potter);

Samuel Beck (secretary/treasurer, mentor); Lillian Harris Blue Black-welder (potter); Betty Harris Blue (potter); Brian Blue (potter); Doris Wheelock Blue (master potter, major history informant, mentor); Eva George Blue (potter); Gilbert Blue (chief); LeRoy Blue (major history informant); Mildred Blue (master potter); Travis Blue (potter); Anna Brown Branham (potter, master bead worker, language revival); William (Monty) Branham (master potter, music composer); Ellen Canty Bridges (gourd worker); Jennie Canty Harris Sanders Brindle (potter, major history informant); Keith Brown (master potter, spiritual leader); Larry Brown (potter, bead worker); Roy Brown (potters' support network); Blanche Harris Bryson (potter, major history informant); Louise Beck Bryson (master potter, major history informant); Mohave Sanders Bryson (potter); Marsha Ferrell Byrd (potter); Edwin Campbell (master potter); Nola Harris Campbell (master potter, major history informant, mentor); Catherine Sanders Canty (master potter, major history informant); Dean Canty (dancer); Jack Canty (traditionalist leader, assistant chief); Jerum Canty; Ronald Canty (potter); Paige Childress (potter); Deborah Harris Crisco (traditionalist leader, mentor); Alberta Canty Ferrell (master potter); Betty Blue Garcia; Guy Garcia (major history informant, drummer); Beckee Simmers Garris (potter, dancer); Charles George (flint knapper); Cindy Ayers George (bead worker); Elsie Blue George (potter, major history informant); Evans (Buck) George (assistant chief, history informant); Evelyn Brown George (master potter, major history informant); Phillip George (wood carver); Isabelle Harris Harris George (potter); Kristen George (potter); Landrum George (major history informant); Mandy George (potter); Marvin George (potter, major history informant); Susan George (potter); Wayne George; Cheryl Gordon (potter); Faye George Greiner (potter, basket maker); Alice Harris; Bertha George Harris (master potter, major history informant); Beulah Thomas Harris (master potter, major history informant); Curtis Harris (potter); Donald Harris (master pipe maker); George Furman Harris (major history informant); Georgia Harris Harris (master potter, major history informant, mentor); Grady Harris (major history informant); Ida Harris (potter); Little Leon Harris; Melvin Harris (major history informant); Minnie Harris Sanders Harris (potter); Peggy Thatcher Harris (potter); Reola Harris Harris (potter); Richard Harris (major history informant); Walter Harris (potter); Wesley Harris (potters' support network); Wilburn Harris (major history informant); William Douglas Harris (wood carver, potter, traditionalist leader, chief); Gail Blue Jones (potter); Brandon Leach (potter); Miranda Leach (potter); Trisha Leach (potter); Faye Robbins Bodiford Lear (potter, spiritual leader, major history informant); Billie Anne McKellar (master potter, mentor); Ann Sanders Morris (potter); Denise Ferrell Nichols (potter); Dawn McKel-

lar Osborn (potter); Sherry Wade Osborn (potter); Delia Harris Oxen-dine (master potter); Donnie Plyler (potter); Elizabeth Plyler (master potter); Olin Plyler (wood carver); Big Bradley Robbins (potter support network); Earl Robbins (master potter, mentor); Flint Robbins (potter support network); Frank Robbins (potter support network); Little Bradley Robbins (potter); Viola Harris Robbins (master potter, mentor); Albert Sanders (chief, major history informant); Brian Sanders (master potter); Caroleen Sanders (master potter); Cheryl Harris Sanders (master potter); Clark Sanders (potter); E. Fred Sanders (potter, major history informant, traditionalist leader, mentor, councilman); Freddie Sanders (master potter); Marcus Sanders (master potter, traditionalist leader); Randall Sanders (potter); Verdie Harris Sanders (potter); Willie Sanders (major history informant); Jimmy Simmers (potter); Shelly Simmers (dancer); Pearly Ayers Harris Strickland (potter, major history informant); Virginia Blue Trimnal (major history informant); Roger Trim-nal (major history informant, traditionalist leader); Margaret Robbins Tucker (master potter); Matthew Tucker (potter); Shane Tucker (potter); Ruby Ayers Brown Vincent (potter); Florence Harris Wade (potter); Frances Canty Wade (potter, major history informant, mentor); Gary Wade (major history informant); Sallie Harris Wade (potter, major history informant); Clifford Watts (major history informant); Eber White (major history informant); Charlie Whitesides (potter); Velma Brown Whitesides (arts and crafts authority); and Clara Sanders Wilson (traditionalist leader).

Those who are allied to the Catawba Nation through marriage and contributed to the success of my work include: Eddie Allen (flute maker); Mae Bodiford Blue (potter); Dennis Bryson (potters' support); Willie Campbell (potters' support); Jayne Marks Harris (artist, potters' support); Judy Leaming (support of traditionalist faction); Steve McKel-lar (artist, potters' support).

A large number of institutions have always stood ready to assist me in my research needs. These include Carolinian Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Catawba Nation Archives, Catawba Nation, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Chester County Museum, Chester, South Carolina; Children's Museum, Charlotte, South Carolina; Dacus Library, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Katawba Valley Land Trust, Lancaster, South Carolina; Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; McKissick Museum, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Mint Museum, Charlotte, North Carolina; Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, Washington, D.C.; Museum of Charleston, South Carolina; Museum of York County, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Qualla Cooperative, Cherokee, North Carolina; Schiele Museum of Natural History, Gastonia, North Carolina; Smithsonian In-

stitution, Washington, D.C.; South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia; University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; University of North Carolina, Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, Chapel Hill; Valentine Museum, Richmond, Virginia; York County Library, Rock Hill, South Carolina.

A growing number of scholars have taken an interest in the Catawba and the following have generously given me their time and expertise: Ruth Byers, York County Library, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Tommy Charles, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Joffre L. Coe, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; R. P. Stephen Davis Jr., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Michael Eldredge, Schiele Museum of Natural History, Gastonia, North Carolina; Barbara Frost, Cinebar Productions, Newport News, Virginia; Tom Johnson, Carolini-ana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Rita Kenion, Archaeologist; Mary Mallaney, York County Library, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Robert Mackintosh, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia; Alan May, Schiele Museum of Natural History, Gastonia, North Carolina; Phil Moody, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Lindsay Pettus, Katawba Valley Land Trust, Lancaster, South Carolina; Louise Pettus, local historian, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Brett H. Riggs, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Blair Rudes, University of North Carolina at Charlotte; Tom Stanley, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, South Carolina; Sherry Staples, Cinebar Productions, Newport News, Virginia; Ann Tippitt, Schiele Museum of Natural History, Gastonia, North Carolina; Gene Waddell, College of Charleston, South Carolina; Steve Watts, Catawba Village Exhibit, Schiele Museum of Natural History, Gastonia, North Carolina; Terry Zug, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Catawba Indian Pottery

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