oofybight, 1006, bt james loeb, new york
It has long been a matter qf regret among students of classical antiquity that so little qf the pottery qf Arretium, which represents unquestionably the highest achievement qf the Roman ceramists, has as yet been published. The writings of Fabroni, Gamurrrni, Pasqui, Dragendorfft and others have indeed done much to place the Arre-tine wares in their proper relation to earlier and later fabrics and to show their great importance for the history qf Roman art. But the treasures of the Museo Pubblico at Arezzo are still almost unknown except to the fortunate few who have enjoyed the privilege of a considerable stay in Arezzo itself, and the smaller collections of Arretine ware in other museums are almost wholly unpublished. Under these circumstances, the present catalogue qf a fairly representative collection qf moulds and fragments may not be without its Justification. In the Introduction, I have tried to give a summary qf the principal results of modem discussions; in the Catalogue proper, to describe as accurately as possible all the pieces qf the Collection ; and in the plates to reproduce all the more important specimens. I hope the result will prove useful to scholars and interesting to amateurs ; and above all that it may help a little in calling attention to a class qf monuments which, in this country at least, has up to the present time been too much neglected.
The Collection is in the Fogg Museum qf Art, Harvard University.
George H. Chase.
Harvard Utnvmarrr January, 1908.
I. Small fragments with inscriptions (Nos. 428-451) .151
Clou III. FU1 Plain vases and vases decorated only with separately modelled reliefs (Nos. 458-472) 155
Handles, handle ornaments, and separately modelled reliefs (Nos. 473-507) 150
Miscellaneous pieces (Nos. 508-589) 166
Aeketine Pottery takes its name from the ancient city of Ar-retium, the modern Arezzo, situated in the upper valley of the Arno, in Tuscany, some fifty miles southeast of Florence. Originally one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan league, and later, after the extension of the Roman power, a flourishing Roman town, Arretium was for many centuries one of the most important cities of central Italy.
Of its history, as of the history of most of the Etruscan cities, we catch glimpses now and then in the writings of the Roman historians, but their references are usually nothing more than brief notices of unsuccessful wars against the Romans during the period of independence and of equally unsuccessful revolts after the establishment of the Roman government. The earliest of these accounts goes back to the time of the kings. During the reign of Tarquinius Pris-cus, Arretium with four other Etruscan towns, Clusium, Volaterrae, Rusellae, and Vetulonia, is said to have joined the Latins and the Sabines in an attempt to check the growing power of the city on the Tiber.1 In 811 b.c., it is mentioned as the only Etruscan city that did not take part in an attack upon Sutrium, which at that time was in alliance with Rome.3 Later, however, the citizens seem to have been induced to change their attitude, for in the next year
1 Dionyriu* of Halicarnasius, Ant. Rom. 8, 51. ' Ltvy 9, 82.
(810 B.C.), we find ambassadors from Arretium, Perusia, and Cor-tona making peace with the Romans.1 In 801, a local quarrel, brought on by an attempt to expel the Cilnii,2 the most powerful of the Arretine families, again involved the city in a struggle with the Romans. According to the account given by Livy, a Roman army marched against Arretium, and during the absence of their commander, the dictator Valerius Maximus, suffered a defeat at the hands of the Arretines and other Etruscans who had joined them, but ultimately the allies were defeated and the Cilnii restored. Livy adds, however, that some authorities declared that there was no war upon the Arretines at this time, but that the insurrection was peaceably suppressed.8 Again, in 294, we find Arretium engaged with other Etruscan cities in still another struggle with Rome, as a result of which they were forced to purchase a forty years' truce for a large sum.4 During the Gallic invasion of 288, the city was besieged by the Senones, and a Roman army which was sent to its relief was defeated with great slaughter.5
Just when Arretium became subject to Rome is unknown, but from the fact that no triumph over the Arretines is recorded, it is perhaps reasonable to think that the change was brought about by peaceful means. As a dependent city, it played some part in the Second Funic War, largely because of its situation on one of the two roads from Rome to northern Italy. In 217 B.C., Flaminius took up his position near its walls to await the invading host of Hannibal; 6 in 209 and 208, Rome was disturbed by rumors of an up-
rising in Etruria, fomented by the Arretines, but the prompt and summary action of the consul designatus, M. Marcellus, and the propraetors of Etruria, C. Calpurnius and C. Hostilius, and especially the exaction of one hundred and twenty sons of Arretine senators as hostages " pacified " the region;1 and later, when Scipio was making preparations for the invasion of Africa, and each of the Etruscan cities was called upon to contribute to the equipment of his fleet, Arretium furnished " 8,000 shields, an equal number of helmets, also javelins, pikes, and long spears to the number of 50,000, axes, spades, hooks, buckets, and mills, enough for forty galleys," as well as wheat and a contribution of money for the decurions and the rowers.2
In the struggle between Marius and Sulla, the Arretines sided with the former, with the result that after the final triumph of Sulla, laws were passed which deprived them of their rights of citizenship and confiscated their lands. The statements of Cicero, from whom we derive this information, imply that in later times the former law was regarded as inoperative, and that a part, at least, of the Arretine territory was recovered by the owners.8 It seems probable, however, that a colony of the veterans of Sulla was established in the territory of Arretium at this time,4 and that it was from them that the coloni Arretini whom Cicero5 mentions among the followers of Catiline were recruited.
the first places that Caesar occupied after crossing the Rubicon.1 In the time of Caesar or Augustus, it received a Roman colony.2 Pliny speaks of Arretini Veteres, Arretini Fidentes, and Arretini Juli-enses,8 implying the existence in the territory of Arretium of three settlements, Arretium Vetus, Arretium Fidens, and Arretium Ju-lium. Of these, Arretium Vetus would naturally be the old Etruscan city, Arretium Julium the colony founded by Julius Caesar or Augustus. Arretium Fidens has sometimes been thought to be the colony sent by Sulla, but it may have been established at some other time. It must be admitted, also, that the existence of three distinct settlements is not certain. Strabo makes no reference to separate towns, but speaks simply of Arretium, which, he says, was the most inland city of Etraria.4 It is possible, therefore, that the terms Arretini Veteres, Arretini Fidentes, and Arretini Julienses refer only to distinct bodies of settlers who for some reason had received a separate municipal organization.
Such is the history of Arretium, so far as we can piece it together from the scattered notices of Greek and Latin writers, a history not very different from that of the other cities of Etruria, except perhaps in the fact that owing to its remoteness from Rome, the city suffered less from its struggles with the Romans than the settlements farther south. The prosperity of the city depended largely on the fertility of the surrounding territory. Its vines and its wheat are praised by Pliny,5 and even to-day the region produces a wine whose excellence is sung by the poets of the modern town. Manu-
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